Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new promising class of antitumor drugs
that have been associated with a number of immune-related Adverse Events (AEs), including
musculoskeletal and rheumatic disease.
Methods: We searched Medline reviewing reports of musculoskeletal and rheumatic AEs induced by
immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Results: Several musculoskeletal and rheumatic AEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors
treatment are reported in the literature. In particular, arthralgia and myalgia were the most common
reported AEs, whereas the prevalence of arthritis, myositis and vasculitis is less characterized and
mainly reported in case series and case reports. Other occasionally described AEs are sicca syndrome,
polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis.
Conclusion: Newly induced musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases are a frequent adverse event
associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment.