Comparative Effects of Activation by CO2, Steam and Their Sequential Combinations on the Pore Structure of Carbon Material Produced from ZnCl2-treated Oil Palm Kernel Shell

Author(s): Mohd Saufi Md Zaini, Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan*

Journal Name: Recent Innovations in Chemical Engineering
Formerly Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering

Volume 11 , Issue 1 , 2018

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: A study was conducted to investigate the effects of activation by CO2, steam and their sequential combinations on the development of pores of activated carbon derived from ZnCl2-treated oil palm kernel shell.

Results & Conclusion: The results show that the combination of CO2 and steam, regardless of their sequence, results in a higher carbon burn-off than the single activating agents. The combination of activation in the sequence of CO2-steam, however, gives the highest value of carbon burn-off and produces activated carbon with the highest total pore volume and BET surface area. Steam activation favours the creation of new microporous structures, while CO2 activation tends to widen existing pores leading to the formation of mesoporous structures. The preferential action of different activating agents can be related to the size of their molecules and the rate at which they dissociate and react with carbon.

Keywords: Activated carbon, pore structure, oil palm kernel shell, steam activation, CO2 activation, ZnCl2.

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Article Details

Year: 2018
Page: [50 - 59]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/2405520411666180427112212
Price: $65

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PDF: 14