Voltammetric Analysis of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs with Solid Electrodes

Author(s): Dilek Kul*

Journal Name: Current Analytical Chemistry

Volume 15 , Issue 3 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atypical antipsychotic drugs used for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder obtaining satisfactory results can be ensured by voltammetric techniques. The aim of this review is to present the application of voltammetric techniques developed for the determination of the atypical antipsychotic drugs, which are amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine fumarate, risperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone, in pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples.

Methods: Studies in the literature published between 2004 and 2017 based on the voltammetric determination of atypical antipsychotic drugs were gathered using scientific databases. The results obtained from these studies were combined and interpreted.

Results: Voltammetric techniques applied for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of the selected atypical antipsychotic drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids were compared. The best analysis conditions were obtained after the optimization of some parameters such as buffer type, pH, and scan rate. For diffusion controlled electrode processes, it was observed that differential pulse and square wave voltammetry methods were generally used for the sensitive quantitative determination of the drugs, whereas stripping methods were used for the adsorption controlled electrode processes. Detection limits were between 1.53×10-3 µM for clozapine and 0.97 µM for risperidone.

Conclusion: The electrodes used in the studies showed high selectivity, sensitivity, and good accuracy with precision. The developed methods were also applied to pharmaceutical preparations of the drugs and biological fluids with satisfactory results, without any interference from inactive excipients.

Keywords: Atypical antipsychotic drug, voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, stripping voltammetry, quantitative determination, solid electrode.

Shen, W.W. A history of antipsychotic drug development. Compr. Psychiatry, 1999, 40, 407-414.
Meltzer, H.Y. What’s atypical about atypical antipsychotic drugs? Curr. Opin. Pharmacol., 2004, 4, 53-57.
Meltzer, H.Y.; Li, Z.; Kaneda, Y.; Ichikawa, J. Serotonin receptors: Their key role in drugs to treat schizophrenia. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2003, 27, 1159-1172.
Jafari, S.; Fernandez-Enright, F.; Huang, X-F. Structural contributions of antipsychotic drugs to their therapeutic profiles and metabolic side effects. J. Neurochem., 2012, 120, 371-384.
Roth, B.L.; Sfeffler, D.; Potkin, S.G. Atypical antipsychotic drug actions: unitary or multiple mechanisms for atypically? Clin. Neurosci. Res., 2003, 3, 108-117.
Agid, O.; Mamo, D.; Ginovart, N.; Vitcu, I.; Wilson, A.A.; Zipursky, R.B. Striatal vs extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in antipsychotic response - a double-blind pet study in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2007, 32, 1209-1215.
Grunder, G.; Hippius, H.; Carlsson, A. The “atypicality” of antipsychotics: a concept re-examined and re-defined. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2009, 8, 197-202.
Üçok, A.; Gaebel, W. Side effects of atypical antipsychotics: a brief overview. World Psychiatry, 2008, 7, 58-62.
Schatzberg, A.F.; Nemeroff, C., Eds.; The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th ed; American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.: Washington, DC, 2009.
Kounavez, S.P. Chapter 37: Voltammetric Techniques. In: Handbook of Instrumental Techniques for Analytical Chemistry; Settle, F.A., Ed.; Prentice Hall PTR: New Jersey, 1997; pp. 709-725.
Brett, C.M.A.; Brett, A.M.O. Electrochemistry; Principles, Methods, and Applications; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1993.
Ozkan, S.A. Principles and techniques of electroanalytical stripping methods for pharmaceutically active compounds in dosage forms and biological samples. Curr. Pharm. Anal., 2009, 5, 127-143.
Wang, J., Ed.; Analytical Electrochemistry, 3rd ed; Wiley-VCH Pub.: New Jersey, 2006.
Bard, A.J.; Faulkner, L.R., Eds.; Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed; John Wiley & Sons Inc.: New York, 2001.
Hart, J.P., Ed.; Electroanalysis of Biologically Important Compounds; Ellis Horwood Pub.: New York, 1990.
Zuman, P. Principles of applications of polarography and voltammetry in the analysis of drugs. FABAD J. Pharm. Sci., 2006, 31, 97-115.
Harvey, D., Ed.; Modern Analytical Chemistry; McGrawHill Company: New York, 2000.
Wang, J., Ed.; Electroanalytical Techniques in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine; Wiley-VCH Pub.: New York, 1988.
Uslu, B.; Ozkan, S.A. Solid electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry: present applications and prospects for high throughput screening of drug compounds. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen., 2007, 10, 495-513.
Murray, R.W. Electroanalytical Chemistry; Bard, A.J., Ed.; Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York, 1983, Vol. 13, .
Murray, R.W. Chemically modified electrodes. Acc. Chem. Res., 1980, 13, 135-141.
Özkan, S.A.; Uslu, B.; Şentürk, Z. Electroanalytical characteristics of amisulpride and voltammetric determination of the drug in pharmaceuticals and biological media. Electroanalysis, 2004, 16, 231-237.
Aşangil, D.; Taşdemir, İ.H.; Kılıç, E. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric methods for determination of aripiprazole. J. Pharm. Anal., 2012, 2, 193-199.
Merli, D.; Dondi, D.; Ravelli, D.; Tacchini, D.; Profumo, A. Electrochemistry and analytical determination of aripiprazole and octoclothepin at glassy carbon electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2013, 711, 1-7.
Shrivastava, R.; Saxena, S.; Satsangee, S.P.; Jain, R. Graphene/TiO2/polyaniline nanocomposite based sensor for the electrochemical investigation of aripiprazole in pharmaceutical formulation. Ionics, 2015, 21, 2039-2049.
Farhadi, K.; Karimpour, A. Electrochemical behaviour and determination of clozapine on a glassy carbon electrode modified by electrochemical oxidation. Anal. Sci., 2007, 23, 479-483.
Huang, F.; Qu, S.; Zhang, S.; Liu, B.; Kong, J. Sensitive detection of clozapine using a gold electrode modified with 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer. Talanta, 2007, 72, 457-462.
Mashhadizadeh, M.H.; Afshar, E. Electrochemical investigation of clozapine at TiO2 nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode and simultaneous adsorptive voltammetric determination of two antipsychotic drugs. Electrochim. Acta, 2013, 87, 816-823.
Shahrokhian, S.; Kamalzadeh, Z.; Hamzehloei, A. Electrochemical determination of clozapine on MWCNTs/new coccine doped PPY modified GCE: An experimental design approach. Bioelectrochemistry, 2013, 90, 36-43.
Qu, S.; Pei, S.; Zhang, S.; Song, P. Preparation of silicate nanotubes and its application for electrochemical sensing of clozapine. Mater. Lett., 2013, 102-103, 56-58.
Tammari, E.; Nezhadali, A.; Lotfi, S.; Veisi, H. Fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on magnetic nanocomposite Fe3O4/-alanine/Pd modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of nanomolar level of clozapine in biological model and pharmaceutical samples. Sens. Actuators B., 2017, 241, 879-886.
Merli, D.; Dondi, D.; Pesavento, M.; Profumo, A. Electrochemistry of olanzapine and risperidone at carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode through classical and DFT approaches. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2012, 683, 103-111.
Arvand, M.; Palizkar, B. Development of a modified electrode with amine-functionalized TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for electrochemical sensing of the atypical neuroleptic drug olanzapine. Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 2013, 33, 4876-4883.
Ahmed, H.M.; Mohamed, M.A.; Salem, W.M. New voltammetric analysis of olanzapine in tablets and human urine samples using a modified carbon paste sensor electrode incorporating gold nanoparticles and glutamine in a micellar medium. Anal. Methods, 2015, 7, 581-589.
Arvand, M.; Orangpour, S.; Ghodsi, N. Differential pulse stripping voltammetric determination of the antipsychotic medication olanzapine at a magnetic nano-composite with a core/shell structure. RSC Adv, 2015, 5, 46095-46103.
Ozkan, S.A.; Dogan, B.; Uslu, B. Voltammetric analysis of the novel atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine in human serum and urine. Mikrochim. Acta, 2006, 153, 27-35.
Nigovic, B.; Spajic, J. A novel electrochemical sensor for assaying of antipsychotic drug quetiapine. Talanta, 2011, 86, 393-399.
Nigovic, B.; Mornar, A.; Sertic, M. Graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode for voltammetric determination of the antipsychotic quetiapine. Mikrochim. Acta, 2016, 183, 1459-1467.
Afkhami, A.; Ghaedi, H. Multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode as an easy, inexpensive and highly selective sensor for voltammetric determination of risperidone. Anal. Methods, 2012, 4, 1415-1420.
Arvand, M.; Pourhabib, A. Adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetric determination of risperidone with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-ionic liquid paste modified glassy carbon electrode. J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 2013, 60, 63-72.
Altun, Y.; Dogan-Topal, B.; Uslu, B.; Ozkan, S.A. Anodic behavior of sertindole and its voltammetric determination in pharmaceuticals and human serum using glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond electrodes. Electrochim. Acta, 2009, 54, 1893-1903.
Kul, D.; Gumustas, M.; Uslu, B.; Ozkan, S.A. Electroanalytical characteristics of antipsychotic drug ziprasidone and its determination in pharmaceuticals and serum samples on solid electrodes. Talanta, 2010, 82, 286-295.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [240 - 248]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1573411014666180426170022
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 53
PRC: 1