Stem/progenitor cells for cell therapy and regenerative medicine should ideally be available
in large numbers, after having been isolated using minimally invasive or non-invasive methodologies.
Also, they should exhibit wide differentiation potential into multiple lineages, as well as capability to
be used successfully in autologous or allogeneic transplantation, and all this in accordance with the
applicable guidelines of good manufacturing practice. Thus, the identification and characterization of
alternative sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is of great importance. The human uterus
emerges as an interesting source of MSCs. Both endometrial MSCs (eMSCs) and human uterine cervical
stem cells (hUCESCs) were easily obtained with minimal morbidity. Both eMSCs and hUCESCs
show a high proliferation rate, which allows for the harvesting of high amounts of these cells, both for
research studies and potential therapeutic uses. It has been demonstrated that eMSCs have wide capability
of differentiation into many cellular lineages, as well as potential therapeutic effects in several
pathological processes. Similarly, hUCESCs’secretome (conditioned medium) shows potent antiinflammatory,
anti-tumor, anti-bacterial and regenerative properties.