In Vitro Methods for the Evaluation of Oxidative Stress
Pp. 131-172 (42)
Hande Gurer Orhan, Sibel Suzen, Tamas Balint Csont, Miroslav Pohanka, Bozena Nejman-Falenczyk, Grzegorz Wegrzyn and Luciano Saso
The study of oxidative stress (OS) phenomena is very relevant for many
disciplines including chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology.
Unfortunately, it is known that no universal test exists for the measurement of OS and
different methods should be used for its evaluation in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. This
chapter reviews the recent in vitro methods for the evaluation OS. Firstly, the
determination of lipid, protein and DNA oxidation products as biomarkers of exposure
to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and how a battery of biomarkers would increase the
efficiency and prevent the limitations of a single test which can end up in
overestimation as well as underestimations were discussed. In detection of free radicals
in biological samples by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) part, properties of
EPR for the direct detection and identification of free radicals (paramagnetic species)
in biological systems were explained. This was followed by the evaluation of
fluorescent assays for the detection of ROS and reactive nitrogen species in biological
systems. Description of voltammetric methods for low molecular weight antioxidants
and significant advantage over the standard spectroscopic tests was discussed. Finally,
measurement of OS in bacteria by stating direct and indirect probe-based measurement
of the ROS and measurement of the oxidative damage to biomolecules as well as assessment of the antioxidant enzymes activities. This chapter will give an overview of
the processes of in vitro methods for the evaluation of OS and touch briefly the most
favored methods and techniques.
Bacteria, EPR, Fluorescent assays, Oxidation products, Oxidative
stress, Reactive species, Voltammetry.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, University of Ege, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.