With the ageing population, musculoskeletal conditions are becoming more inherent. Delayed
union is defined as a slower than normal fracture healing response, with no healing after 4 to 6
months; however, the union is anticipated given sufficient time. In the context of delayed/non-union,
fragility fractures in osteoporotic populations carry significant patient morbidity and socioeconomic
costs. Multiple mechanisms hinder fracture healing in osteoporotic patients, imbalanced bone
remodelling leads to impaired bone microarchitecture due to reduced osteoblast number and activity
and as such, callus formation is diminished. Since stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into various
tissue lineages, they are becoming very popular in tissue regeneration in musculoskeletal conditions.
In this review, we discuss the role of stem cells in physiological fracture healing and their potential
therapeutic use following a fracture. We explore the potential of stem cells, the release of chemokines
and cytokines to reduce fracture risk in osteoporosis.