The herbal plant extract of Enicostemma littorale is widely used to medicate and treat type
II Diabetes. This extract in medicine has shown its value in reducing blood glucose & lipid levels, and
improving the kidney functioning, lipid profile, controlling blood pressure and heart rate. The well
characterized chemical components such as iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides are present in aqueous
and ethanolic extracts of the plant. Swertiamarin, a secoiridoid glycoside, is identified as the lead
compound that confers anti-hyperglycemic & anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The swertiamarin binds
with one or more molecular targets to alter their expression and/or activity. The in silico, in vivo and in
vitro studies have been carried out to uncover the underlying molecular mechanism of action of swertiamarin
and its derivatives for showing the better anti-diabetic & anti-hyperlipidemic activities. In
brief, the present review focuses on unraveling the information about molecular targets of swertiamarin.
Our review will open new avenues to develop therapeutic approaches and drugs to treat diabetes
and other inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: Swertiamarin, Enicostemma littorale, semi-synthetic derivatives, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, type 2 diabetes
mellitus, insulin sensitizer.
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