Background: Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural cavity. Pneumothorax can
be generally sub-divided into spontaneous and non-spontaneous subtypes. The most common
examples of non-spontaneous pneumothorax include iatrogenic and traumatic.
Methods: Current studies provide good evidence of epidemiology of this condition. Similarly, there
have been improvements in our understanding of underlying mechanisms of spontaneous
pneumothorax. In the recent years new approaches to manage patients with pneumothorax have been
proposed. These were led by development of new devices as well as better evidence from clinical
studies on how to manage pneumothorax.
Conclusions: In this review we will discuss recent developments in our understanding in relation to in
epidemiology, pathophysiology as well as management of pneumothorax.