The rise in Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections has become a significant problem in
both the developing countries and in the United States (U.S.). Specifically, MDR gram-negative
infections are emerging, affecting not only adults but children as well. The specific gram-negative
organisms that have been most concerning within the pediatric population include MDR P.
aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.
The increase in antimicrobial resistance rates is associated with various mechanisms with one of the
most common being the production of beta-lactamases. Both Ceftazidime/Avibactam (CZA) and
Ceftolozane/Tazobactam (C/T) are two recently approved antibiotics in the U.S. While both of
these agents are inhibitors of beta-lactamase enzymes, there are differences between them that are
important to understand. At this time, the data in children for these agents are extremely limited.
The aim of this review is to describe the characteristics of these agents and their potential uses in
Keywords: beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, children, Enterobacteriaceae,
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