Cholesterol is an important lipid for maintaining cell membrane fluidity and generation
of various hormones and bile acids. Thus, it is critical to maintain cholesterol homeostasis including
absorption, trafficking, biosynthesis, and efflux; dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis may lead
to human disorders such as atherosclerosis. As a cholesterol sensor, nuclear receptor liver X
receptor (LXR) is an important factor regulating cholesterol homeostasis. Extensive research has
been carried out to examine the roles of LXR in atherosclerosis. In this review, we summarize our
current understanding of the mechanisms how LXR regulates cholesterol synthesis, efflux,
absorption, and conversion of cholesterol esters to cholesterol in the context of atherosclerosis. In
addition, we also discuss the possibility of targeting LXR and cholesterol homeostasis as a potential
interventional strategy for treating atherosclerosis.
Keywords: LXR, cholesterol, cholesterol ester, metabolism, atherosclerosis, CVD.
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