Due to an increasing pressure on the chemical society to consider environmental aspects of
chemical production, the development of sustainable methodologies has been in the focus of research
for years. Ionic Liquids (ILs) have numerous favorable properties: outstanding chemical, thermal and
electrochemical stability, non-flammability, negligible volatility, excellent solvation ability and great
variability of cation-anion pairs and structure that render them useful materials in green reactions. In
pharmaceutics, they may find wide application in the synthesis, extraction and purification of bioactive
compounds or may serve as pharmaceutical ingredients themselves.
The review focusses on the use of ILs in the synthesis of pharmaceutically active compounds as reaction
media, catalyst or catalyst support. ILs can be the efficient solvents as they are known to stabilize
reactive intermediates, besides, they facilitate catalyst reuse in e. g. transition metal-catalyzed reactions.
Acidic or basic ILs may serve as recyclable catalysts themselves. Other representatives may
contain functional groups enabling their application as organocatalysts. Immobilization of catalytically
active species on a Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) as solid material may further enhance catalytic
The review shows examples for the application of the methodologies mentioned above in the synthesis
of biologically active molecules.