Background: Drug toxicity and inefficacy are commonly experienced problems with drug
therapy failure. To face these problems, extensive research work took place aiming to design new dosage
forms for drug delivery especially nanoparticulate systems. These systems are designed to increase
the quantity of the therapeutic molecule delivered to the desired site concurrently with reduced
side effects. In order to achieve this objective, nanocarriers must principally display suitable drug vehiculization
abilities and a controlled biological destiny of drug molecules. Only the intelligent design
of the nanomedicine will accomplish these fundamentals.
Methods: The present review article is dedicated to the discussion of the important fundamentals to be
considered in the fabrication of nanomedicines. These include the therapeutic agent, the imaging
agent, the nanocarrier and the functionalization moieties. Special consideration is devoted to the explanation
and compilation of highly potential fabrication approaches assisting how to control the in
vivo destiny of the nanomedicine. Finally, some nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, for the
development of nanomedicine, are also discussed.
Results: The nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems show remarkable outcomes based on passive
and active targeting as well as improvement of the drug pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic
profiles. Multifunctional nanocarrier concept affords a revolutionary drug delivery approach for
maximizing the efficacy, safety and monitoring the biological fate of the therapeutic molecule.
Conclusion: Nanomedicines may enhance the efficacy of therapeutic molecules and reduce their toxic
effects. Meanwhile, further research works are required to rightly optimize (and define) the effectiveness,
nanotoxicity, in vivo destiny and feasibility of these nanomedicines which, from a preclinical
standpoint, are actually promising.