Background and Objective: Excess caloric intake and less energy expenditure (e.g. physical
inactivity) are associated with acquired metabolic disorders due to sedentary life style. Pharmacological
treatments are less effective in preventing obesity. Type of diet influences the gut microbiome alteration
and it is interrelated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Modified gut microbiota
by the harmful bacterial components (e.g: lipopolysaccharides) is linked with the metabolic endotoxemia
(low-grade inflammation) which results in damage to the gut barrier function. Administration
of probiotics (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) as live micro-organisms or fermented products achieves
proper gut environment. In addition, administration of prebiotics along with probiotics improves the
body weight, abdominal fat and intestinal barrier function.
Methods: We compiled all the available literature in the present review in relation to altered gut microbiota
by different type of diets, effect of probiotics on obesity and its accompanying diseases in
animal and clinical studies.
Conclusion: Studies are indicating that anti-hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic effects of probiotics
are strain dependent as well as type of animal models. To improve against metabolic disorders, probiotics,
need to be administered through prebiotics and requires more clinical studies in this area.