Background: Curcuma longa Linn, “the golden spice” is a common spice used
in Southern Asia and Middle East countries. It has a history of ethnopharmacological use
for its various activities like anti-septic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial,
anti-cancer and so on.
Objective: To investigate the effects of polar extract of C. longa (PCL) against monosodium
iodoacetate (MIA) induced osteoarthritis in rat and to compare with curcuminoids, which
are contemporarily believed to be the only active phytochemicals of C. longa for relieving
pain in osteoarthritis.
Method: Osteoarthritis in rats was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate
(MIA) in right knee. PCL or curcuminoids or tramadol was administered orally as
single dose on the 5th day post MIA injection to rats. Weight bearing capacity and percentage
inhibition of nociception of PCL treated groups were determined and compared with
curcuminoids and tramadol (reference drug). In addition, gene expression levels of type II
collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in joint cartilage was measured by Reverse
transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Results: PCL significantly decreased the difference in weight distribution between left and
right limb in a dose dependent manner. Anti-arthritic activity of PCL is evident from significant
up regulation of type II collagen gene (COL2A1) and down regulation of MMP-3
Conclusion: Polar extract of C. longa showed beneficial effects on joints by exhibiting antiosteoarthritic
effects via maintaining equilibrium between anabolic and catabolic factors of