Therapeutic and Nutraceutical Potential of Bioactive Compounds in Aegle marmelos (L.): An Overview

Author(s): Ena Gupta*, Snehlata Shakyawar, Shanthy Sundaram.

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 15 , Issue 4 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Aegle Marmelos (L.) Correa (A. marmelos), is a medicinal plant of Rutaceae family having a long history of curative property in traditional medicine. This plant is a rich source of bioactive compounds and natural antioxidants which can be isolated from its various parts such as fruit (carotenoids, tannins, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, marmelosin, marmelide, psoralen, aurapten, luvangetin); leaf (phenols, lupeol, skimmianine, citral, aegeline, eugenol, citronella, marmesinine) and bark (marmin, skimmianine, fagarine) etc. Many clinical and pre-clinical researches suggest the therapeutic applications of A. marmelos, such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which play a potential role in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. This review article focuses on exploring novel bioactive compounds of the above plant possessing potential therapeutic and health promoting applications.

Keywords: Aegle marmelos, bioactive compounds, nutritional properties, therapeutic potential, natural antioxidants, health promoting applications.

Yadav JP, Kumar S, Siwach P. Folk medicines used in gynecological and other related problems by rural population of Haryana. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2006; 5(3): 323-6.
Gupta E, Purwar S, Sundaram S, Tripathi P, Rai GK. Stevioside and Rebaudioside A- The predominant ent- kaurene diterpene glycosides of therapeutic potential: An overview. Czech J Food Sci 2016; 34(4): 281-99.
Chakraborty MK, Bhattacharjee A. Some common ethnomedicinal uses for various diseases in Purulia district, West Bengal. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2006; 5(4): 554-8.
Cragg GM, Newman DJ, Snader KM. Natural products in drug discovery and development. J Nat Prod 1997; 60(1): 52-60.
De Smet PA. The role of plant-derived drugs and herbal medicines in healthcare. Drugs 1997; 54(6): 801-40.
Shu YZ. Recent natural products based drug development: A pharmaceutical industry perspective. J Nat Prod 1998; 61(8): 1053-71.
Biswas K, Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK, Bandyopadhyay U. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Curr Sci 2002; 82: 1336.
Chattopadhyay I, Biswas K, Bandyopadhyay U, Banerjee RK. Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications. Curr Sci 2004; 87: 44.
Arya DS, Nandave M, Ojha SK, Kumari S, Joshi S, Mohanty I. Myocardial salvaging effects of Ocimum sanctum inexperimental model of myocardial necrosis: A hemodynamic, biochemical and histoarchitectural assessment. Curr Sci 2006; 91: 667-71.
Nagendra KK, Rangaiah GS, Varaprasad B, Sirisha C. Bactericidal activities of different medicinal plants extracts against ocular pathogens viz corynebacterium macginleyi. Drug Invent Today 2010; 29(1): 5-7.
Sharma PC, Bhatiya V. A review on bael tree. Nat Prdt Radi 2007; 6(2): 171-8.
Knight RJ Jr. Origin and world importance of tropical and subtropical fruit crops. In: Nagar S, Shah PE, Eds.Tropical and subtropical fruits AVI Pub Co: Westport, CT . 1980; pp. 1-120.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A. Agroforestree Database: A tree reference and selection guide version 40. World Agroforestry Centre Kenya 2009.
Badam L, Bedekar SS, Sonawane KB, Joshi SP. In vitro antiviral activity of bael (Aegle marmelos Corr) upon human coxsackieviruses B1-B6. J Commun Dis 2002; 34(2): 88-9.
Dhankhar S. Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa: A source of Phytomedicine. J Med Plants Res 2010; 5(9): 1497-507.
Parmar C, Kaushal MK. Wild fruits of the sub Himalayan regionKalyani Publishers: New Delhi, India. 1982.
George KV, Mohanan N, Nair SS. Ethnobotanical investigations of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corr. In: Singh V and Jain AP, Eds.Ethnbot Med Plants India and Nepal. Scientific Publishers Jodhpur 2003; pp. 29-35.
Kurian JC. Plants that heals. Oriental publishing house India 1992.
Hiremarh IG, Ahn YJ. Kim Soon-II. Insecticidal activity of Indian plant extracts against Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera Delphacidae). Appl Entomol Zool 1996; 32(1): 159-66.
Rahman A, Said HM, Ahmad VU. Pakistan encyclopaedia planta medica Hamdard foundation press: Karachi. 1986.
Veerappan AKS, Renganathan D. Cardiotonic effect of Aegle marmelos Corr. On amphibian heart in situ preparation Proc 6th Internet World Congress for Biomedical Science 2000
Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Herbs of choice-The therapeutic use of phytomedicines. Int J Pharma Sci 2002; 3(2): 199-203.
Kaushik P, Dhiman AK. Medicinal Plants and Raw Drugs of India. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Dehradun 1999.
Mazumdar BC, Ramesh J. Stability of rough journal bearings using nonlinear transient method. J Tribol 1995; 117(4): 691-5.
Singh S, Singh P, Singh SK, Trivedi M, Dixit RK, Shanker P. Biological activities and therapeutic potential of Aegle Marmelos (Bael): A review. Int Res J Pharmaceut Appl Sci 2013; 3(1): 1-11.
Trivedi VP, Nesamany S, Sharma VK. Ayurvedic herbs: A clinical guide to the healing plants of traditional medicine. J Res Ind Med YOGA Homeopath 1978; 28: 13. [Cited in: Dutta A, Lal N, Naaz M, Ghosh A, Verma R. Ethnological and ethno-medicinal importance of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Bael) among indigenous people of India. Am J Ethnomed. 2014;1(5): 290-312.
Patkar AN, Desai NV, Ranage AA, Kalekar KS. A review on Aegle marmelos: A potential medicinal tree. Int Res J Pharm 2012; 3(8): 86-91.
Roy SK, Khurdiya DS. Other subtropical fruit. In: Salunkhe DK, Kadam SS, Eds.Handbook of fruit science and technology: Production, composition, storage and processing. Marcel Dekker New York 1995; pp. 539-55.
Maity P, Hansda D, Bandyopadhyay U, Mishra DK. Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Indian J Exp Biol 2009; 47(11): 849-61.
Lakht-e-Zehra, Asadullah, Dar NG, et al. . Nutritional exploration of leaves, seed and fruit of bael (Aegle marmelos L.) grown in Karachi region. Pak J Biochem Mol Biol 2015; 48(3): 61-5.
Rahman S, Pravin R. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014; 4(1): 71-7.
Nadkarni KM. Indian materia medica. Bombay Popular Prakashan India 1993.
Sukhdev AR. A selection of prime ayurvedic plant drugs - Ancient modern concordance. Anamaya publication: India 2003
Veerappan AKS, Renganathan D. Cardiotonic effect of Aegle marmelos Corr.On amphibian heart in situ preparation, Proc 6th Internet World Congress for Biomedecial Science 2000
Dutta A, Lal N, Naaz M, Ghosh A, Verma R. Ethnological and ethnomedicinal importance of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr (Bael) among indigenous people of India. Am J Ethnomed 2014; 1(5): 290-312.
Parichha S. Bael (Aegle marmelos) nature’s most natural medicinal fruit. Orissa Rev 2004; 9: 16-7.
Purohit SS, Vyas SP. Aegle marmelos Correa ex Roxb. (Bael). In: medicinal plant cultivation- a scientific approach. Agrobios: Jodhpur 2004; pp. 280-85.
Rathore M. Nutrient content of important fruit trees from arid zone of Rajasthan. J Hortic For 2009; 1(7): 103-8.
Nigam V, Nambiar V. Evaluation of the physico-chemical characteristics, minerals and heavy metals in wild and cultivated variety of Aegle marmelos (L) Correa leaves. Int J Ayurvedic Herb Med 2014; 4(6): 1634-48.
Neeraj, Bisht V, Johar V. Bael (Aegle marmelos) extraordinary species of India: A review. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2017; 6(3): 1870-87.
Farooq S. 555 medicinal plants. In: Field and laboratory manual. International book distributors: Dehradun 2005; pp. 40-42
Yadav NP, Chanotia CS. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of leaves of Aegle marmelos Linn. Pharm Rev 2009; 144-50.
Hema CG, Lalithakumari K. Screening of pharmacological actions of Aegle marmelos. Indian J Pharm 1999; 20(2): 80-5.
Chakraborty M, Patel A, Garach D, Kamath J. Aegle marmelos (Linn.): A therapeutic boon for human health. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2012; 3(2): 159-62.
Bramhachari PV, Reddy YK. Phytochemical examination, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa extracts. J Pharm Res 2010; 3(12): 3023-5.
Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Drugs containing glycosides.In: Pharmacognosy. 21st ed. Nirali Prakashan: Pune 2002; 158-239.
Daniel M. Medicinal plants-chemistry and properties of medicinal plantsIBH publication: Columbo 2006.
Sivraj R, Balakrishnan A. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Aegle marmelos. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011; 2(1): 146-50.
Sharma GN, Dubey SK. Medicinal values of Bael: A review. Int J Cur Pharm Rev Res 2005; 1(3): 20-31.
Laphookhieo S, Phungpanya C, Tantapakul C, Techa S, Tha-in S, Narmdorkmai W. Chemical constituents from Aegle marmelos. J Braz Chem Soc 2011; 22(1): 176-8.
Mujeeb F, Bajpai P, Pathak N. Phytochemical evaluation, anti-microbial activity and determination of bioactive compounds from leaves of A. marmelos. BioMed Res Int 2014; 2014: 1-11.
Jain SK. Dictionary of Indian folk medicine and ethnobotany. Deep Publications : New Delhi 1991.
Rangari VD. In: Traditional Drugs of India. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Part-II. 1st ed. Carrier Publications: Nasik 2004; pp. 182-4.
Ali MS, Pervez MK. Marmenol: A 7- geranyloxy coumarin from the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. Nat Prod Res 2004; 18(2): 141-6.
Dev S. A selection of prime Ayurvedic plant drugs Ancient modern concordance. Anamaya Publishers New Delhi 2006; p. 56.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN, Sinha S, Seth R. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants Vol 3 Central Drug Research Institute (India), Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (India) Publications & Information Directorate: New Delhi 2001.
Choudhry BK, Kar A, Bandhopadhyay NG. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 84: 105-8.
Maheshwari VL, Joshi PV, Patil RH. In vitro anti diarrhoeal activity and toxicity profile of Aegle marmelos Correa ex. Roxb. dried fruit pulp. Nat Prod Rec 2009; 8(5): 498-502.
Citarasu T, Rajajeyasekar R, Venkatramalingam K, Dhandapani PS, Peter Marian M. Effect of wood apple Aegle marmelos, Correa (Dicotyledons, Spindales, Rutaceae) extracts as an antibacterial agent on pathogens infecting prawn (Penaeus indicus) larviculture. Indian J Mar Sci 2003; 32(2): 156-61.
Kaur S, Kaur P, Walia A, Kumar S. Antigenotoxic Activity of polyphenolic rich extracts from Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in human blood lymphocytes and E. coli PQ 37. Rec Nat Prod 2009; 3(1): 68-75.
Patil RH, Chaudhary B, Settipalli S. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of Aegle marmelos Linn. Pharmacogn J 2009; 1: 4.
Mujeeb F, Bajpai P, Pathak N. Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity, and determination of bioactive components from leaves of Aegle marmelos. BioMed Res Int 2014; 2014(10): 1-11.
Duke JA. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and Their Activities CRC Press:. Boca Raton, Florida, United States 1992.
Dhankhar S, Ruhil S, Balhara M, Dhankhar S, Chhillar A. Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa: A potential source of phytomedicine. J Med Plants Res 2011; 5(9): 1497-507.
Badam L, Bedekar SS, Sonawane KB, Joshi SP. In vitro antiviral activity of Bael (Aegle marmelos Corr) upon human coxsackieviruses B1-B6. J Commun Dis 2002; 34(2): 88-9.
Kamalakkannan N, Prince PSM. Antihyperlipidaemic effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. J Sci Food Agric 2005; 85: 569-73.
Lambertini E, Piva R, Khan MT, et al. Effects of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines and expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene. Int J Oncol 2004; 24(2): 419-23.
Rajadurai M, Padmanabhan M, Prince PSM. Effect of Aegle marmelos leaf extract and alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Cardiology 2005; 1: 40-5.
Sabu MC, Kuttan R. Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its antioxidant properties. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48(1): 81-8.
Vidhya N, Devaraj SN. Antioxidant effect of Eugenol in rat intestine. Indian J Exp Biol 1999; 37(12): 1192-5.
Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Recent Advances in Health Promoting Effect of Dietary Polyphenols. Curr Nutr Food Sci 2012; 8(4): 254-64.
Tiwari BK, Abidi AB, Rizvi SI, Pandey KB. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antioxidant potentials of some Indian medicinal plants and their composite extract. Ann Phytomed 2016; 5(1): 99-103.
Wali A, Gupta M, Mallick SA, Guleria S, Sharma M. Antioxidant potential and phenol profile of bael leaf (Aegle marmelos). Indian J Agric Biochem 2015; 28(2): 138-42.
Capasso R, Pinto L, Vuotto ML, Di Carlo G. Preventive effect of eugenol on PAF and ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Fitoterapia 2000; 71(Suppl. 1): S131-7.
Hajra PK, Nair VJ, Daniel P. Flora of IndiaVol 4. Botanical Survey of India Kolkata, India. 1997.
Maity P, Biswas K, Roy S, Banerjee RK, Bandyopadhyay U. Smoking and the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcer-recent mechanistic update. Mol Cell Biochem 2003; 253(1-2): 329-38.
Liu ES, Cho CH. Relationship between ethanol-induced gastritis and gastric ulcer formation in rats. Digestion 2000; 62(4): 232-9.
Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K, Sengupta A, et al. Clinical studies on the effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract on gastric secretion and gastroduodenal ulcer. Life Sci 2004; 75(24): 2867-78.
Borrelli F, Izzo AA. The plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies. Phytother Res 2000; 14(8): 581-91.
Dhuley JN. nvestigation on the gastroprotective and antidiarrhoeal properties of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit extract. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 2003; 45-46(1-4): 41-6.
Lampronti I, Matello D, Bianchi N, et al. In vitro antiproliferate effects on human tumour cell lines of extract from the Bangladeshi medicinal plant Aegle marmelos Correa. Phytomed 2003; 10(4): 300-8.
Rao Ch, Amresh R, Irfan A, Rawat AKS, Pushpangadan P. Protective effect of Aegle marmelos fruit in gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats. J Pharma Biol 2003; 41(8): 558-63.
Kamalakkanan N, Prince PS. Hypoglycemic effect of water extracts of Aegle marmelos fruits in Streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 87(2-3): 207-10.
Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Singh SK, Diwakar S, Watal G. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extractin normal and diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107(3): 374-9.
Hafizur RM, Momin S, Fatima N. Prevention of advanced glycation endproducts formation in diabetic rats through beta-cell modulation by Aegle marmelos. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017; 17: 227.
Sabu MC, Kuttan R. Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its antioxidant properties. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48(1): 81-8.
Upadhya S, Shanbhag KK, Suneetha G, Balachandra Naidu M, Upadhya S. A study of hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48(4): 476-80.
Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS. Fruit extract of Aegle marmelos protects mice against radiation-induced lethality. Integr Cancer Ther 2004; 3(4): 323-32.
Costa-Lotufo LV, Khan MT, Ather A, et al. Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 99(1): 21-30.
Benni JM, Jayanthi M, Suresha R. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) root. Indian J Pharmacol 2011; 43(4): 393-7.
Dhankhar S, Ruhil S, Balhara M, Dhankhar S, Chhillar AK. Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa: A potential source of phytomedicine. J Med Plants Res 2011; 5(9): 1497-507.
Ghangale GR, Surve VS, Anbarasan K, Gatne MM. Evaluation of Aegle marmelos (Bael) for anti-inflammatory activity in rats. J Bombay Vet College 2008; 16(1): 15-6.
Veerappan A, Miyazaki S, Kadarkaraisamy M, Ranganathan D. Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Aegle marmelos Corr., an Indian medicinal plant. Phytomed 2007; 14(2-3): 209-15.
Kruawan K, Kangsadalampai K. Antioxidant activity, phenolic compound contents and antimutagenic activity of some water extract of herbs. J Pharm Sci 2006; 30: 28-35.
Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS. Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to different doses of γ-radiation: A micronucleus study. Mutagenesis 2003; 18(4): 387-93.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [306 - 317]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1573401314666180123151622
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 46