Recent advances in multiple omics technologies and the advent of massively
parallel sequencing provide technical supports for the implementation of precision medicine.
The precision medicine emphasizes that heterogeneous diseases can be well classified
into more precise subtypes by the powerful detection methods and integration of
clinical features, so that the clinicians should develop more accurate diagnosis and therapeutic
strategies for the disease subtype population in an effort to maximize the efficacy
and minimize the unnecessary side effects. Oncology is at the forefront of precision medicine,
as malignant tumors have significant heterogeneity and are among the leading
causes of death nationally and worldwide. The incidence and mortality of Hepatocellular
Carcinoma (HCC), a kind of extraordinarily heterogeneous malignancy, have been increasing
worldwide, making it a major public health concern. Such heterogeneity affects
key signaling pathways, driving phenotypic variation, influences tumor evolution, and
poses severe challenges to HCC treatment. The application of precision medicine will
have certain impact on HCC diagnosis and treatment strategies. Herein, we summarize the
updates and challenges in high-risk population screening, prevention, diagnosis, staging
and therapy of HCC under the concept of precision medicine.