The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide. It is estimated that more than 30% of the
world population is now affected by one or more allergic conditions and a high proportion of this increase is in
young people. The diagnosis of allergy is dependent on a history of symptoms on exposure to an allergen together
with the detection of allergen-specific IgE. Accurate diagnosis of allergies opens up therapeutic options.
Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only successful disease-modifying therapy for IgE-mediated allergic
diseases. New therapeutic strategies have been developed or are currently under clinical trials. Besides new
routes of administration, new types of allergens are being developed. The use of adjuvants may amplify the
immune response towards tolerance to the antigens. In this review, we analyze different antigen-specific immunotherapies
according to administration route, type of antigens and adjuvants, and we address the special case
of food allergy.
Keywords: Immunotherapy, allergy, tolerance, antigens, adjuvants, IgE.
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