Background: Various types of proteins play important roles in the biomineralization of
hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). The resulting organic-HAp nanohybrids have highlyorganized
hierarchical structures that show unique morphological, structural, and mechanical properties.
By mimicking the biomineralization process, organic-HAp hybrid materials have been created
by utilizing proteins and peptides.
Objectives: In this review, firstly the roles of proteins in HAp mineralization in vivo are briefly
explained. Recent progresses in the creation of organic-HAp hybrids through the utilization of proteins
and peptides are then described.
Results: Roles of collagen and amelogenin on the formation of bones and teeth were explained.
Then, recent advances, including those by the authors, in the creation of organic-HAp hybrids
through the utilization of these proteins, their derivatives, and synthetic peptides, including engineering-
isolated ones, were reviewed.
Conclusion: Organic-HAp hybrid materials have been intensively created by utilizing proteins and
peptides. Among them, engineering-isolated or rationally designed peptides and their derivatives
represent future promising building components for organic-HAp hybrids with precise hierarchical
structures. Not only the excellent functions of the resultant hybrids materials, but also the creation
of materials by biomimetic synthetic processes at a low cost and environmental burden are important
for sustainable industrial development.