Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by around 20 species of obligate intramacrophage
protozoa of the genus Leishmania. This disease is an important cause of morbidity and
mortality that primarily impacts the poorest populations living in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the
world, but has become of concern in some developed countries. The resistance of leishmanial parasites
to the drugs available and their undesirable side effects have prompted the discovery of new synthetic
compounds with potent antileishmanial activity and fewer side effects that can serve as new therapeutic
agents. In this article, we make a comprehensive review of the most recent advances of synthetic compounds
with antileishmanial activity (from 2015 to the early 2017). Furthermore, we covered the structure-
activity relationship studies that allow for optimization and selection of the most promising drugs,
and the biochemical mechanisms that explain the antileishmanial activities observed.
Keywords: Antileishmanial agents, chemotherapy, leishmaniasis, Leishmania, neglected tropical diseases, synthetic compound.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport