Introduction: Metabolome reflects the sum of all life processes in the cell-tissue-organ,
belonging to all the systems that constitute the individual and it refers to metabolites included in a
cell, tissue or organism. Since metabolites are various, in terms of chemical species and concentrations,
it is necessary to conduct metabolite analysis with a variety of different analytical techniques.
Imaging is the main part of these modern diagnosis pathways.
Discussion: A narrative review of all the relevant papers known to the authors was conducted, researching
the Pubmed database. Considering this last definition of the multimodal in vivo - in vitro
approach, an essential and versatile diagnostic technique can be regarded as the most recent and
crucial innovation in modern diagnostics: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).
For the in vitro application, NMR has become an important tool for metabolomics. Metabolomics
is defined as the quantitative and qualitative analysis of a large number of metabolites that are intermediate
or final products of all the metabolic pathways in a biological system. Metabolomics
aims to obtain a global understanding of living organisms to a deeper level than has so far been
achieved through genomics and proteomics. This property is of great clinical importance in light of
recent definitions of health and disease.
Conclusion: This review highlights the workflow of a typical metabolomics study and summarises
the most up-to-date results obtained from the latest in vivo imaging techniques and their technologies,
focussing on the future perspective of in vivo MRS metabolomics.