Background: Ethosomes, a novel type of percutaneous drug delivery carrier with a lipid
bilayer structure, penetrate the skin barrier due to their deformability and malleability, and presence of
ethanol that fluidizes lipids in the skin. In order to further enhance the delivery of drugs through the
skin, penetration enhancers are widely used.
Objective: The objective of this work was to develop an optimized formulation of lornoxicam ethosomal
gels, investigate skin permeability with the addition of penetration enhancers, and evaluate the invivo
pharmacodynamics of these formulations.
Methods: Lornoxicam ethosomes were prepared by the ethanol injection method and optimized using
the orthogonal design method. Lornoxicam ethosomal gels with enhancers were prepared and optimized
using in-vitro transdermal delivery experiments. Experiments on lornoxicam ethosomal gels
containing various enhancers such as azone, menthol, lauryl alcohol, and oleic acid were conducted
using vertical Franz diffusion cells to measure the percutaneous permeability of the different formulations.
Furthermore, the in-vivo analgesic effects of the optimized lornoxicam ethosomal gels were examined
using the hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated
using the dimethylbenzene-induced mouse ear swelling method.
Results: The results showed that compared to other formulations, the optimized lornoxicam ethosomal
gels with 5 % menthol significantly increased transdermal penetration. Meanwhile, the optimized lornoxicam
ethosomal gels showed remarkably anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity compared
with the plain lornoxicam gels.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the optimized ethosomal gel formulated in this study is a promising
lornoxicam carrier in transdermal delivery systems to enhance anti-nociceptive and antiinflammatory