Background: Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global
health today, leading to higher medical costs and increased mortality. Because of the
emergence and rapid spread of new resistance mechanisms globally, a growing number of
infections are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less
effective. Therefore, the development of new effective antimicrobial agents is still urgently
needed. In last decades, a large number of structurally novel spirooxindoles have
been synthesized mainly based on the ylide intermediates generated in situ and further assessed
for their antimicrobial activity against different types of bacteria, leading to the discovery
of some potent lead compounds with antimicrobial potentials.
Objective: The aim of this review to submarize recent advances on the synthesis, structure-
activity relationship studies (SARs) and antimicrobial activity of spirooxindoles.
Methods: Peer-reviewed research work on spirooxindoles with antimicrobial activity were
downloaded from bibliographic databases and analyzed based on their chemoptypes.
Results: 50 papers were retrieved from the literature databases, of which 20 papers described
the synthesis and antimicrobial activity of spirooxindoles.
Conclusion: This review highlights the importance of spirooxindoles as potential antimicrobial
agents. The antimicrobial activity of spirooxindoles against different types of bacteria
is less studied, mainly centering on primary antimicrobial assessment, some of these
compounds have showed interesting antimicrobial activity. However, the current study is
only limited to primary antimicrobial assessment, no detailed modes of action are investigated.