Background: Unintentional passive diffusion of conventional small molecular weight pharmaceuticals
across intact membranes of normal healthy cells in tissues and organ systems induces sequelae that limit therapeutic
dosage and duration of administration. Selective “targeted” delivery of pharmaceuticals is a molecular
strategy that can potentially provide heightened margins-of-safety with greater potency and improved efficacy.
Materials and Methods: Monophosphate analogs of fludarabine, gemcitabine, and dexamethasone were combined
with a carbodiimide reagent in the presence of imidazole to produce reactive intermediates that were subsequently
covalently bound to monoclonal anti-IGF-1R or anti-EGFR IgG-immunoglobulin. The resulting covalent
immunopharmaceutical end-products, fludarabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R], gemcitabine-(5'-
phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R], and dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramidate)-[anti-EGFR] were evaluated by
SDS-PAGE/chemiluminescent autoradiography (fragmentation/polymerization detection), UV spectrophotometric
absorbance (purity; molar-incorporation-index), cell-ELISA (retained selective binding-avidity), and cell
vitality-viability (selectively “targeted” anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity).
Results: Maximum selectively “targeted” anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity of fludarabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-
IGF-1R], gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R], and dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramidate)-[anti-
EGFR] was detected at the pharmaceutical-equivalent concentrations of 10-5 M (94.7%), 10-7 M (93.1%), and 10-7
M (64.9%) respectively.
Discussion: Organic chemistry reactions were optimized in a template multi-stage synthesis regimen for fludarabine-(
5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R], gemcitabine-(5’-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R], and dexamethasone-(
C21-phosphoramidate)-[anti-EGFR]. Attributes of the synthesis regimen include; [-i-] covalent bonding of
pharmaceutical moeities at high molar incorporation indexes, [-ii-] implementation of organic chemistry reactions
in a non-dedicated synthesis regimen allowing component substitution and [-iii-] optional preservation of presynthesized
amine-reactive pharmaceutical intermediates for on-demand immunopharmaceutical synthesis. Attributes
of the covalent immunopharmaceuticals are; absence of any synthetically introduced chemical groups,
retained IgG-immunoglobulin binding-avidity and potent selective “targeted” anti-neoplastic cytotoxic potency.
Under in-vivo conditions, supplemental anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity is realized through trophic receptor inhibition
and activation of multiple cytotoxic host immune responses.