Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) is a fertility-related disorder affecting 1% of women.
It is defined as the development of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before the typical natural age of
the menopause. The diagnosis of POI, previously described as premature ovarian failure, is one of unexpected,
bad news for generally young, healthy and well-being women less than 40 years old. Despite
iatrogenic and genetic pathogenesis approximately 90% of cases are diagnosed accidentally with unknown
etiology. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are a class of nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent proteins
which regulate various biochemical pathways and participate in a wide range of major cellular
processes, such as aging, apoptosis, inflammation, stress resistance, genomic stability and energy metabolism.
Some findings also suggest that sirtuins family proteins may be potential markers of ovarian
aging. The present review evaluates some activities of sirtuins, especially sirtuin1 and its possible association
with woman's metabolism, ovarian aging and premature ovarian insufficiency. This discussion
gives the novel insight into the etiology of idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency and offers
new research directions in the field (Fig. 1).