Background: Xanthene is pharmacologically important oxygen containing heterocyclic moeity exhibiting
an array of potent biological activities like antibacterial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant,
antiplasmodial etc. Other useful applications of these heterocycles are as fluorescent materials for the
visualization of biomolecules and in laser technology.
Objective: This review gives an insight of the literature available on the methods for the construction of xanthene
nucleus. This review article can be reasonably encouraging for those involved in the synthesis of molecules
exhibiting a wide range of biological activities involving xanthene as central nucleus and would provide
them assistance in developing new eco-friendly, efficient and economical viable methods.
Conclusion: Owing to diverse applications of xanthenes, various synthetic methodologies have been developed,
whether to construct this privileged scaffold. Many of the reported methods involve the use of various
harsh catalysts/reagents that are not environmentally benign, produce a large amount of waste and need longer
reaction times. The sustainable and diversity oriented synthesis of xanthene scaffold which incorporates Green
Chemistry tools like multicomponent reaction approach, heterogeneous catalysts, alternate reaction media such
as water, ionic liquids, polyethylene glycol etc. has also been developed.