Background: The rising environmental awareness has driven efforts for the development of
renewable materials for various end-use applications. The trend of using biopolymer in combination with
organic or non-organic filler has increased rapidly in recent years. Seaweed is a versatile organism that
produces various kinds of polysaccharides i.e. agar, carrageenan and alginate that are extensively used in
the development of biopolymer. Biopolymers derived from seaweed polysaccharides possess promising
features as they are renewable, biodegradable, biocompatible, and environment-friendly. The aims of this
paper are to review research related to the seaweed and its biopolymers for various applications.
Methods: Research articles related to the seaweed and its biopolymers are reviewed. The summary of
seaweed composites and seaweed biopolymers modification are provided.
Results: Seaweed has been used for various applications ranging from food, thickening agent, natural
medicine, biofuel, biosorbent material, etc. Seaweed was also used as reinforcement to improve the
mechanical properties of polymer composites. Various modifications have been done on seaweed
biopolymer to improve the properties of the materials such as blending with other polymers, the addition of
compatibilizer, and reinforcement with other materials. The potential of seaweed polymers i.e. agar,
carrageenan, and alginate in various applications such as packaging and pharmaceutical show promising
characteristics for applications.
Conclusion: Seaweed is a highly potential source for renewable biopolymers. These biopolymers have
shown great characteristics for various applications due to their unique film-forming ability and excellent
mechanical properties. These properties can be further improved following various modification
techniques i.e. reinforcement and blending. The potential of seaweed as filler in polymer composites
provides evidence to improve the thermal, physical, and mechanical properties of the synthetic polymer
matrix. It can be concluded that seaweed is a highly potential renewable resource for the development of
biocompatible and environmentally friendly materials.