Anesthetic Agents and Neuronal Autophagy. What We Know and What We Don't.

Author(s): Lili Xu, Jianjun Shen, Patrick M. McQuillan, Zhiyong Hu*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 25 , Issue 8 , 2018


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Abstract:

Background: Ethanol is known to have both γ-Aminobutyric acid agonist and Nmethyl- D-aspartate antagonist characteristics similar to commonly used volatile anesthetic agents. Recent evidence demonstrates that autophagy can reduce the development of ethanol induced neurotoxicity. Recent studies have found that general anesthesia can cause longterm impairment of both mitochondrial morphogenesis and synaptic transmission in the developing rat brain, both of which are accompanied by enhanced autophagy activity. Autophagy may play an important role in general anesthetic mediated neurotoxicity.

Methods: This review outlines the role of autophagy in the development of anesthetic related neurotoxicity and includes an explanation of the role of autophagy in neuronal cell survival and death, the relationship between anesthetic agents and neuronal autophagy, possible molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying general anesthetic agent induced activation of neuronal autophagy in the developing brain, and potential therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating autophagic pathways.

Results: In a time- and concentration-dependent pattern, general anesthetic agents can disrupt intracellular calcium homeostasis which enhances both autophagy and apoptosis activation. The degree of neural cell injury may be ultimately determined by the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis. It appears likely that the increase in calcium flux associated with some anesthetic agents disrupts lysosomal function. This results in an over-activation of endosomal- lysosomal trafficking causing mitochondrial damage, reactive oxygen species upregulation, and lipid peroxidation.

Conclusion: Autophagy may play a role in the development of anesthetic related neurotoxicity. Understanding this may lead to strategies or therapies aimed at preventing or ameliorating general anesthetic agent mediated neurotoxicity.

Keywords: Immature brain, general anesthetic agents, autophagy, neurotoxicity, ethanol, neuronal cell.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 25
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2018
Published on: 09 October, 2017
Page: [908 - 916]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666171009123605
Price: $65

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