Platelet Oxidative Stress and its Relationship with Cardiovascular Diseases in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Author(s): Mohammed El Haouari*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 22 , 2019

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Abstract:

Enhanced platelet activation and thrombosis are linked to various cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Among other mechanisms, oxidative stress seems to play a pivotal role in platelet hyperactivity. Indeed, upon stimulation by physiological agonists, human platelets generate and release several types of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2 -, H2O2 or OH-, further amplifying the platelet activation response via various signalling pathways, including, formation of isoprostanes, Ca2+ mobilization and NO inactivation. Furthermore, excessive platelet ROS generation, incorporation of free radicals from environment and/or depletion of antioxidants induce pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory and platelet hyperaggregability effects, leading to the incidence of cardiovascular events. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the effect of oxidative stress on platelet signaling pathways and its implication in CVD such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also summarize the role of natural antioxidants included in vegetables, fruits and medicinal herbs in reducing platelet function via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.

Keywords: Platelets, reactive oxygen species, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, antioxidants, signal transduction.

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