Background: Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common solid malignancy
occurring in young men between 20 and 34 years of age, and its incidence has increased
significantly over the last decades. TGCTs can be subdivided into seminoma and nonseminoma
germ cell tumors (NSGCTs), which includes yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, embryonal
cell carcinoma, and teratoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs present significant differences
in therapy, prognosis, and both show characteristics of the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs).
Methods: I undertook a search of bibliographic data from peer-reviewed research literature.
Results: Seventy papers were included in the mini-review showing that a large number of new
biomarkers have given further advantages to discriminate the different histotypes and could
represent useful novel molecular targets for anticancer strategies.
Conclusion: A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of TGCTs is likely to significantly
improve not only our knowledge on stem cells and oncogenesis but also the disease management
with more selective tumor treatment.