Background: The impact of protein intake level leads to considerable alterations of the
host essential amino acid profiles in the context of chronic viral infectious process. Amino acids
play an important role in the pathogenesis of virus-related infections both as basic substrates for
constant protein synthesis and as regulators in many metabolic pathways. The excess or deficiency
of these host essential nutritional elements can play a limiting role in the life cycle of some viruses.
Objective: Our aim was to determine the changes of hematological parameters and viral load due to
the high protein and L-lysine amino acid intake in HIV-infected patients.
Methods: Case-control study was performed in the Municipal Center of HIV/AIDS prophylaxis,
Surgut, Russian Federation.
Results: The obtained data indicate that excess of dietary protein and L-lysine can increase the risk
of high HIV replication, subsequent acceleration of immunosuppression and the disease progression.
The present survey shows that HIV-infected Khanty indigenous people have the highest levels
of plasma L-lysine and HIV-1 RNA and a more pronounced state of immunosuppression in comparison
with the total patients' cohort.
Conclusion: There was evidence for an association between plasma L-lysine level and viral load.
These findings are important for understanding the pathogenic impact of animal protein and Llysine
consumption on the HIV-1 RNA levels and must be considered in further research for the
development of new approaches in the treatment of HIV infection in era of HAART.