Molecular Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulators as Activatable Targets in Cancer Theranostics

Author(s): Yinglu Li, Zhiming Li, Wei-Guo Zhu*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 8 , 2019

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Abstract:

Epigenetics is defined as somatically inheritable changes that are not accompanied by alterations in DNA sequence. Epigenetics encompasses DNA methylation, covalent histone modifications, non-coding RNA as well as nucleosome remodeling. Notably, abnormal epigenetic changes play a critical role in cancer development including malignant transformation, metastasis, prognosis, drug resistance and tumor recurrence, which can provide effective targets for cancer prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Understanding these changes provide effective means for cancer diagnosis and druggable targets for better clinical applications. Histone modifications and related enzymes have been found to correlate well with cancer incidence and prognosis in recent years. Dysregulated expression or mutation of histone modification enzymes and histone modification status abnormalities have been considered to play essential roles in tumorigenesis and clinical outcomes of cancer treatment. Some of the histone modification inhibitors have been extensively employed in clinical practice and many others are still under laboratory research or pre-clinical assessment. Here we summarize the important roles of epigenetics, especially histone modifications in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, and also discuss the developmental implications of activatable epigenetic targets in cancer theranostics.

Keywords: Cancer theranostics, epigenetics, epigenetic regulator, histone modification, histone modifier, cancer therapy.

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VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170921101947
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