Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multiple complications, including cardiomyopathy, retinopathy,
nephropathy and neuropathy. Diabetic complications are the major cause of disability and
death in diabetic patients. Apelin, a recently identified adipokine peptide, has been found to play important
roles in diabetic complications. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of apelin in
the pathogenesis of different diabetic complications. We also propose that similar to insulin resistance or
leptin resistance, diabetics may also show apelin resistance. Potential clinical application of apelin and
its analogue peptides in treating diabetic complications is discussed.