Background: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion
cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk
factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms.
Objective: An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has
Results: In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric
oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic
factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine
and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors.
Conclusions: The review has been also endowed of a brief chapter on last reports about potential
neuroprotective benefits of anti-glaucoma drugs already present in the market.