Background: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of positive pressure ventilation
that does not require an endotracheal tube. NIV is used in pediatrics in numerous clinical conditions,
but it is necessary to systematize the available knowledge to better understand its application and
effectiveness in disease management.
Objective: To discuss the scientific evidence published in the last five years (2011 to 2016) regarding
the use of NIV in children and adolescents.
Methods: A systematic review was performed in the databases PEDro and MEDLINE using the
descriptors: noninvasive ventilation, pediatrics, children and adolescent. We selected articles with
participants aged from zero to 20 years, regardless of pathology, who were submitted to NIV in the
hospital or at home. We excluded studies that did not have the assessment of NIV as the main
Results: Initially, 377 articles were identified, of these, 123 articles were excluded because of the
title, year or duplicity, 147 because of the abstract, and 73 after full reading. Thus, 34 articles were
included in the review. Of the 34 articles evaluated, only two reported side effects for NIV, but the
benefits outweigh the side effects mentioned.
Conclusion: NIV has become a reality well established and studied in pediatrics in numerous
diseases. In the review, we demonstrated that NIV is safe, viable and effective for the treatment of
acute respiratory failure, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, nocturnal alveolar hypoventilation, acute
viral bronchiolitis, neuromuscular disease, asthma and cystic fibrosis, and that it can be used as
therapy at home.