Background: Ocular inflammation and allergic eye diseases range from mild to severe may
disturb visual function and affect` quality of life. Since these diseases require intensive therapies, the
pathophysiology and treatments of these conditions are highlighted.
Objective: The ocular diseases caused by inflammation and allergy are extensively studied in this review
to provide an overview of the newer compounds, novel delivery approaches, preclinical and
clinical trials for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis, dry eye syndrome, and uveitis.
Method: The eye is divided into two segments; anterior and posterior. Both segments provide barriers
to the drug delivery to the eye. Despite many efforts by scientists, several potential drug candidates are
often dropped from the initial screening portfolio due to failure in overcoming these barriers. Thus to
overcome unmet challenges, remarkable progresses have been made towards the design of novel ocular
therapeutics with enhanced activity and minimal toxicity to the ocular tissue. A comprehensible understanding
of the diseased conditions, physiological barriers and pharmacokinetics of the eye would significantly
accelerate the development of new therapeutics. Moreover, identification of new targets
drives the discovery of novel drug molecules for the ocular disease treatment.
Results: The advancement in the drug discovery and dosage from design showcases the increasing
number of patent applications being filed and issued for allergic conjunctivitis, dry eye syndrome, and
uveitis. In addition, preclinical and clinical trials are now becoming available showing the newer generation
of ocular drugs.
Conclusion: This review presented a brief background on the disease condition, types, treatment, advancement
in the delivery approaches, focus on emerging therapeutics, related patents and clinical trials
for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis, dry eye syndrome, and uveitis.