Neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of structure or neuron
function, often associated with neuronal death. Treatments for neurodegenerative diseases only address symptoms
without having any disease-modifying effect but serious side effects. Currently, there is no effective treatment for
NDDs. This is due to the poor flow of drugs to the blood-barrier brain (BBB) which does not allow macromolecules
like proteins and peptides to pass through it. Targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) for
the diagnosis and treatment of NDDs, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is restricted due to the limitations posed
by the BBB as well as opsonization by plasma proteins in the systemic circulation and peripheral side-effects.
Nanotechnology thereby presents a broad approach for transporting molecules through the BBB, thus allowing
the entry of substances acting directly on the site affected by the disease. The aim of this review is to outline
current strategies in nanotechnology for treating Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), astrocyte, Blood-brain barrier (BBB), glial cell, Parkinson’s disease (PD), nanotechnology, drug delivery,
nanoparticle (NP), liposome, dendrimer, quantum dot, nanocarrier, nanoliposome, nanomicelle.
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