Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the rarest but extremely aggressive thyroid
cancer subtype. This neoplasia is composed of undifferentiated tumor cells with poor
prognosis and resistant to common thyroid cancer therapy. Early stage identification of
this cancer for prompt treatment is very vital. Presently, cytological evaluation of fine
needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) which is known as invasive recognition assay, is the
standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors. Frequent
studies have suggested that using the molecular biomarkers of thyroid cancer tissue
alongside cytological examination, increase the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Also, these
agents could be beneficial for effective target therapy and personalize medicine. In this
review, the molecular biomarkers that are involved in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in four
category (gene mutation profile, epigenetic profile, microRNA profile and cancer stem
cell markers) were summarized.
Keywords: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, molecular biomarkers, gene mutation profile, epigenetic profile,
microRNA profile, cancer stem cell markers.
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