Cola Beverages: Clinical Uses versus Adverse Effects

Author(s): Ehsan T. Moghaddam, Ali Tafazoli*

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Excessive consumption of cola beverages is accompanied by numerous public health risks. But besides these well-known adverse effects, recently, several medical articles have been published that show some indications for cola beverages in clinical practice like resolution of gastrointestinal or feeding tube obstructions, increasing bioavailability and palatability of other medications, rehydration and other uses in healthcare settings. These approaches are not without shortcomings and complications.

Methods: In this systematic review we tried to explore these new uses for practitioners and also reemphasize on the most evidence-based complications of cola consumption like bone loss and metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects in cases of misuse and overuse from both clinical and nutritional points of view via searching the PubMed database.

Results: We chose 145 journal articles from the most relevant ones plus 30 extra references and categorized their topics in two classes of medical uses and adverse effects.

Conclusion: It could be stated that cola beverages have demonstrated interesting uses and benefits in medicine but their use should be regulated as strict as possible.

Keywords: Beverages, bioavailability, cola, complications, drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, therapeutic uses.

[1]
Mariner WK, Annas GJ. Limiting “sugary drinks” to reduce obesity-who decides? N Engl J Med 2013; 368(19): 1763-5.
[2]
Amato D, Maravilla A, Garcia-Contreras F, Paniagua R. Soft-drinks and health. Rev Invest Clin 1997; 49(5): 387-95.
[3]
Burns PB, Rohrich RJ, Chung KC. The levels of evidence and their role in evidence-based medicine. Plast Reconstr Surg 2011; 128(1): 305-10.
[4]
Hashimoto K, Omori M, Yoshimura E, et al. A case of small intestinal ileus caused by migration of gastric bezoars, which was successfully treated by dissolution therapy with cola through an ileus tube. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2016; 113(5): 798-803.
[5]
Lu L, Zhang XF. Gastric outlet obstruction-an unexpected complication during Coca-Cola therapy for a gastric bezoar: A case report and literature review. Intern Med 2016; 55(9): 1085-9.
[6]
Naramore S, Virojanapa A, Bell M, Jhaveri PN. Bezoar in a pediatric oncology patient treated with Coca-Cola. Case Rep Gastroenterol 2015; 9(2): 227-32.
[7]
Lee JJ, Kim JW. Successful removal of hard sigmoid fecaloma using endoscopic Cola Injection. Korean J Gastroenterol 2015; 66(1): 46-9.
[8]
Yaqub S, Shafique M, Kjaestad E, et al. A safe treatment option for esophageal bezoars. Int J Surg Case Rep 2012; 3(8): 366-7.
[9]
Hayashi K, Ohara H, Naitoh I, et al. Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: A case report. Cases J 2008; 1(1): 385.
[10]
Lin CS, Tung CF, Peng YC, Chow WK, Chang CS, Hu WH. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction. J Chin Med Assoc 2008; 71(1): 49-52.
[11]
Ladas SD, Triantafyllou K, Tzathas C, Tassios P, Rokkas T, Raptis SA. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 14(7): 801-3.
[12]
Iwamuro M, Yunoki N, Tomoda J, Nakamura K, Okada H, Yamamoto K. Gastric bezoar treatment by endoscopic fragmentation in combination with Pepsi-Cola(R) administration. Am J Case Rep 2015; 16: 445-8.
[13]
Ertugrul G, Coskun M, Sevinc M, Ertugrul F, Toydemir T. Treatment of gastric phytobezoars with Coca-Cola given via oral route: A case report. Int J Gen Med 2012; 5: 157-61.
[14]
Stathis P, Tzias V, Argyris P, Barla G, Maltezou M. Gastric bezoar complication of duodopa((R)) therapy in parkinson’s disease, treated with Coca-Cola((R)). Mov Disord 2014; 29(8): 1087-8.
[15]
Koumi A, Panos MZ. Oesophageal food impaction in achalasia treated with Coca-Cola and nifedipine. BMJ Case Rep 2010; 2010: bcr0520091891.
[16]
Cotton MH. The use of coca-cola in the management of bolus obstruction in benign oesophageal stricture. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1993; 75(5): 377.
[17]
Iwamuro M, Okada H, Matsueda K, et al. Review of the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bezoars. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 7(4): 336-45.
[18]
Ladas SD, Kamberoglou D, Karamanolis G, Vlachogiannakos J, Zouboulis-Vafiadis I. Systematic review: Coca-cola can effectively dissolve gastric phytobezoars as a first-line treatment. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013; 37(2): 169-73.
[19]
Chen HW, Chu HC. Migration of gastric bezoars leading to secondary ileus. Intern Med 2011; 50(18): 1993-5.
[20]
Cheng A, Ratnapalan S. Improving the palatability of activated charcoal in pediatric patients. Pediatr Emerg Care 2007; 23(6): 384-6.
[21]
Dagnone D, Matsui D, Rieder MJ. Assessment of the palatability of vehicles for activated charcoal in pediatric volunteers. Pediatr Emerg Care 2002; 18(1): 19-21.
[22]
Rangan C, Nordt SP, Hamilton R, Ingels M, Clark RF. Treatment of acetaminophen ingestion with a superactivated charcoal-cola mixture. Ann Emerg Med 2001; 37(1): 55-8.
[23]
Fischer TF, Singer AJ. Comparison of the palatabilities of standard and superactivated charcoal in toxic ingestions: A randomized trial. Acad Emerg Med 1999; 6(9): 895-9.
[24]
Mayron D, Gennaro AR. Stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in I.V. solutions and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1996; 53(3): 294-304.
[25]
Scharman EJ, Cloonan HA, Durback-Morris LF. Home administration of charcoal: Can mothers administer a therapeutic dose? J Emerg Med 2001; 21(4): 357-61.
[26]
Crouch BI, Caravati EM, Dandoy C. Effect of dilution with beverages on the smell and taste of oral acetylcysteine. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64(18): 1965-8.
[27]
Gutstein HB, Johnson KL, Heard MB, Gregory GA. Oral ketamine preanesthetic medication in children. Anesthesiology 1992; 76(1): 28-33.
[28]
Isik B, Baygin O, Bodur H. Effect of drinks that are added as flavoring in oral midazolam premedication on sedation success. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18(6): 494-500.
[29]
Fotaki N, Klein S. Mechanistic understanding of the effect of PPIs and acidic carbonated beverages on the oral absorption of itraconazole based on absorption modeling with appropriate in vitro data. Mol Pharm 2013; 10(11): 4016-23.
[30]
Lange D, Pavao JH, Wu J, Klausner M. Effect of a cola beverage on the bioavailability of itraconazole in the presence of H2 blockers. J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 37(6): 535-40.
[31]
Jaruratanasirikul S, Kleepkaew A. Influence of an acidic beverage (coca-cola) on the absorption of itraconazole. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 52(3): 235-7.
[32]
Walravens J, Brouwers J, Spriet I, Tack J, Annaert P, Augustijns P. Effect of pH and comedication on gastrointestinal absorption of posaconazole: Monitoring of intraluminal and plasma drug concentrations. Clin Pharmacokinet 2011; 50(11): 725-34.
[33]
Chin TW, Loeb M, Fong IW. Effects of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on absorption of ketoconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995; 39(8): 1671-5.
[34]
van Leeuwen RW, Peric R, Hussaarts KG, et al. Influence of the acidic beverage cola on the absorption of erlotinib in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 2016; 34(12): 1309-14.
[35]
Wimberley SL, Haug MT, Shermock KM, Qu A, Maurer JR, Mehta AC. Enhanced cyclosporine-itraconazole interaction with cola in lung transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 2001; 15(2): 116-22.
[36]
Tafazoli A. Cyclosporine use in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: pharmacokinetic approach. Immunotherapy 2015; 7(7): 811-36.
[37]
Santucci R, Leveque D, Herbrecht R. Cola beverage and delayed elimination of methotrexate. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 70(5): 762-4.
[38]
Chiwele I, Jones BE, Podczeck F. The shell dissolution of various empty hard capsules. Chem Pharm Bull 2000; 48(7): 951-6.
[39]
Seow-En I, Seow-Choen F. A prospective randomized trial on the use of coca-cola zero((R)) vs. water for polyethylene glycol bowel preparation before colonoscopy. Colorectal Dis 2016; 18(7): 717-23.
[40]
Mitchell J, Farrow R, Hussaini SH, Dalton HR. Clearance of barium from the oesophagus with diet cola and metoclopramide: A one stop approach to patients with dysphagia. Clin Radiol 2001; 56(1): 64-6.
[41]
Maughan RJ, Watson P, Cordery PA, et al. A randomized trial to assess the potential of different beverages to affect hydration status: Development of a beverage hydration index. Am J Clin Nutr 2016; 103(3): 717-23.
[42]
Tucker MA, Ganio MS, Adams JD, et al. Hydration status over 24-h is not affected by ingested beverage composition. J Am Coll Nutr 2015; 34(4): 318-27.
[43]
Gonzalez-Alonso J, Heaps CL, Coyle EF. Rehydration after exercise with common beverages and water. Int J Sports Med 1992; 13(5): 399-406.
[44]
Hefelfinger DC. More on cola drinks and rehydration in acute diarrhea. N Engl J Med 1987; 316(5): 280.
[45]
Sheth NK, Wisniewski TR, Franson TR. Survival of enteric pathogens in common beverages: An in vitro study. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83(6): 658-60.
[46]
Jung AP, Dale RB, Bishop PA. Ambient-temperature beverages are consumed at a rate similar to chilled water in heat-exposed workers. J Occup Environ Hyg 2007; 4(1): 54-7.
[47]
Desbrow B, Jansen S, Barrett A, Leveritt MD, Irwin C. Comparing the rehydration potential of different milk-based drinks to a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2014; 39(12): 1366-72.
[48]
Diez-Gandia A, Ajenjo MA, Navalon AB, Fernandez RB, Sanz AB, Diez-Domingo J. Palatability of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) in healthy 6 to 9 year-old children. A multicentre, randomised single blind clinical trial. Ann Pediatr 2010; 72(2): 111-5.
[49]
Fiala KA, Casa DJ, Roti MW. Rehydration with a caffeinated beverage during the nonexercise periods of 3 consecutive days of 2-a-day practices. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004; 14(4): 419-29.
[50]
Dahl GT, Woldseth B, Lindemann R. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water. Eur J Pediatr 2012; 171(9): 1405-7.
[51]
Acute diarrhoea in infants: Oral rehydration is crucial. Prescrire Int 2000; 9(49): 146-53.
[52]
Kohn CL, Keithley JK. Enteral nutrition, potential complications and patient monitoring. Nurs Clin North Am 1989; 24(2): 339-53.
[53]
Metheny N, Eisenberg P, McSweeney M. Effect of feeding tube properties and three irrigants on clogging rates. Nurs Res 1988; 37(3): 165-9.
[54]
Rucart PA, Boyer-Grand A, Sautou-Miranda V, Bouteloup C, Chopineau J. Influence of unclogging agents on the surface state of enteral feeding tubes. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011; 35(2): 255-63.
[55]
Steinberg DJRC, Montreuil JRC, Santoro ALR, Zettas ARC, Lowe JMCFMMSCE. The effects of glucose therapy agents-apple juice, orange juice, and cola-on enteral tube flow and patency. Can J Diet Pract Res 2016; 77(2): 93-7.
[56]
Liguori A, Hughes JR. Caffeine self-administration in humans: 2. A within-subjects comparison of coffee and cola vehicles. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 5(3): 295-303.
[57]
Richards G, Smith A. Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children. J Psychopharmacol 2015; 29(12): 1236-47.
[58]
Keast RS, Riddell LJ. Caffeine as a flavor additive in soft-drinks. Appetite 2007; 49(1): 255-9.
[59]
Talic NF, Almudhi AA. The effect of dietary pigmentation on the esthetic appearance of clear orthodontic elastomeric modules. J Orthod Sci 2016; 5(2): 70-3.
[60]
Malek Afzali B, Ghasemi A, Mirani A, Abdolazimi Z, Akbarzade Baghban A, Kharazifard MJ. Effect of ingested liquids on color change of composite resins. J Dent 2015; 12(8): 577-84.
[61]
Catelan A, Guedes APA, Suzuki TYU, et al. Fluorescence intensity of composite layering combined with surface sealant submitted to staining solutions. J Esthet Restor Dent 2015; 27(S1): 1-8.
[62]
Karaman E, Tuncer D, Firat E, Ozdemir OS, Karahan S. Influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014; 15(3): 319-25.
[63]
Casas-Apayco LC, Dreibi VM, Hipolito AC, et al. Erosive cola-based drinks affect the bonding to enamel surface: An in vitro study. J Appl Oral Sci 2014; 22(5): 434-41.
[64]
Machado CM, Zamuner AC, Modena KC, Ishikiriama SK, Wang L. How erosive drinks and enzyme inhibitors impact bond strength to dentin. Braz Oral Res 2015; 29(1): 1-7.
[65]
Lussi A, Carvalho TS. Analyses of the erosive effect of dietary substances and medications on deciduous teeth. PLoS One 2015; 10(12): e0143957.
[66]
Rajavardhan K, Sankar A, Kumar M, Kumar K, Pranitha K, Kishore K. Erosive potential of cola and orange fruit juice on tooth colored restorative materials. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014; 4(S3): S208-12.
[67]
Levy FM, Rios D, Buzalaf MA, Magalhaes AC. Efficacy of TiF4 and NaF varnish and solution: A randomized in situ study on enamel erosive-abrasive wear. Clin Oral Investig 2014; 18(4): 1097-102.
[68]
De Alencar CR, Magalhaes AC, De Andrade Moreira Machado MA, De Oliveira TM, Honorio HM, Rios D. In situ effect of a commercial CPP-ACP chewing gum on the human enamel initial erosion. J Dent 2014; 42(11): 1502-7.
[69]
Lombardini M, Ceci M, Colombo M, Bianchi S, Poggio C. Preventive effect of different toothpastes on enamel erosion: AFM and SEM studies. Scanning 2014; 36(4): 401-10.
[70]
Esteves SR, Huhtala MF, Gomes AP, Ye Q, Spencer P, De Paiva Goncalves SE. Longitudinal effect of surface treatments. Modified by NaOCl-Induced deproteinization and Nd: YAG laser on dentin permeability. Photomed Laser Surg 2016; 34(2): 68-75.
[71]
Poggio C, Lombardini M, Vigorelli P, Colombo M, Chiesa M. The role of different toothpastes on preventing dentin erosion: An SEM and AFM study(R). Scanning 2014; 36(3): 301-10.
[72]
Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of soft drinks and fresh fruit juice on surface roughness of commonly used restorative materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(1): 1-5.
[73]
Tanthanuch S, Kukiattrakoon B, Siriporananon C, et al. The effect of different beverages on surface hardness of nanohybrid resin composite and giomer. J Conserv Dent 2014; 17(3): 261-5.
[74]
Abd Elhamid M, Mosallam R. Effect of bleaching versus repolishing on colour and surface topography of stained resin composite. Aust Dent J 2010; 55(4): 390-8.
[75]
Burnett GR. The effect of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice on the acid resistance of dentin smear layers. Am J Dent 2013. 26(Spec No A): 15a-8a.
[76]
Tenuta LM, Fernandez CE, Brandao AC, Cury JA. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery. Braz Oral Res 2015; 29(1): S1806 pii: 83242015000100234.
[77]
Ertas E, Guler AU, Yucel AC, Koprulu H, Guler E. Color stability of resin composites after immersion in different drinks. Dent Mater J 2006; 25(2): 371-6.
[78]
Sajadi SS, Amirabadi GE, Sajadi S. Effects of two soft drinks on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of orthodontic metal brackets. J Dent 2014; 11(4): 389-97.
[79]
Grewal N, Kudupudi V, Grewal S. Surface remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel eroded by cola-drinks: An in-situ model study. Contemp Clin Dent 2013; 4(3): 331-7.
[80]
Zaidel L, Patel R, Mello S, et al. Anti-hypersensitivity mechanism of action for a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, 0.243% NaF and specially-designed silica. Am J Dent 2011; 24 (Spec No A): 6a-13a.
[81]
Poggio C, Lombardini M, Colombo M, Bianchi S. Impact of two toothpastes on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink: An AFM in vitro study. J Dent 2010; 38(11): 868-74.
[82]
Gemzell-Danielsson K, Rabe T, Cheng L. Emergency contraception. Gynecol Endocrinol 2013; 29(S1): 1-14.
[83]
Breidert M, Schimmelpfennig C, Kittner T, Helwig A, Ehninger G. Diabetes insipidus in a patient with a highly malignant B-cell lymphoma and stomatitis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2000; 108(1): 54-8.
[84]
Klepstad P. Relief of postural post dural puncture headache by an epidural blood patch 12 months after dural puncture. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999; 43(9): 964-6.
[85]
Homan CS, Maitra SR, Lane BP, Thode HC Jr, Finkelshteyn J, Davidson L. Effective treatment for acute alkali injury to the esophagus using weak-acid neutralization therapy: An ex-vivo study. Acad Emerg Med 1995; 2(11): 952-8.
[86]
Collings R, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Dainty JR, Roe MA. Low-pH cola beverages do not affect women’s iron absorption from a vegetarian meal. J Nutr 2011; 141(5): 805-8.
[87]
Hallberg L, Rossander L. Effect of different drinks on the absorption of non-heme iron from composite meals. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 1982; 36(2): 116-23.
[88]
Layrisse M, Martinez-Torres C, Renzi M, Velez F, Gonzalez M. Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification. Am J Clin Nutr 1976; 29(1): 8-18.
[89]
Gaesser GA, Rich RG. Influence of caffeine on blood lactate response during incremental exercise. Int J Sports Med 1985; 6(4): 207-11.
[90]
Desbrow B, Leveritt M. Well-trained endurance athletes’ knowledge, insight, and experience of caffeine use. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2007; 17(4): 328-39.
[91]
Oboh G, Akinyemi AJ, Omojokun OS, Oyeleye IS. Anticholinesterase and antioxidative properties of aqueous extract of cola acuminata seed in vitro. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2014; 2014: 498629.
[92]
Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Oryem-Origa H. Traditional herbal remedies used in the management of sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction in Western Uganda. Afr Health Sci 2005; 5(1): 40-9.
[93]
Rubin JT, Towbin RB, Bartko M, Baskin KM, Cahill AM, Kaye RD. Oral and intravenous caffeine for treatment of children with post-sedation paradoxical hyperactivity. Pediatr Radiol 2004; 34(12): 980-4.
[94]
Boyd KL, Ross EK, Sherman SJ. Jelly beans as an alternative to a cola beverage containing fifty grams of glucose. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173(6): 1889-92.
[95]
Casas MJ, Seo AH, Kenny DJ. Sonographic examination of the oral phase of swallowing: Bolus image enhancement. J Clin Ultrasound 2002; 30(2): 83-7.
[96]
Weaver CM, Gordon CM, Janz KF, et al. The National Osteoporosis Foundation’s position statement on peak bone mass development and lifestyle factors: A systematic review and implementation recommendations. Osteoporos Int 2016; 27(4): 1281-386.
[97]
Aguilera-Barreiro Mde L, Rivera-Marquez JA, Trujillo-Arriaga HM, Ruiz-Acosta JM, Rodriguez-Garcia ME. Impact of risk factors for osteoporosis on bone mineral density in perimenopausal women of the City of Queretaro, Mexico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 2013; 63(1): 21-8.
[98]
Hostmark AT, Sogaard AJ, Alvaer K, Meyer HE. The oslo health study: A dietary index estimating frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables is negatively associated with bone mineral density. J Osteoporos 2011; 2011: 102686.
[99]
Tucker KL. Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition. Curr Osteoporos Rep 2009; 7(4): 111-7.
[100]
Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84(4): 936-42.
[101]
Petridou E, Karpathios T, Dessypris N, Simou E, Trichopoulos D. The role of dairy products and non alcoholic beverages in bone fractures among schoolage children. Scand J Soc Med 1997; 25(2): 119-25.
[102]
Wyshak G, Frisch RE. Carbonated beverages, dietary calcium, the dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio, and bone fractures in girls and boys. J Adolesc Health 1994; 15(3): 210-5.
[103]
Kristensen M, Jensen M, Kudsk J, Henriksen M, Molgaard C. Short-term effects on bone turnover of replacing milk with cola beverages: A 10-day interventional study in young men. Osteoporos Int 2005; 16(12): 1803-8.
[104]
Gul MS, Gul N, Shah JZ, Tasneem S, Iftikhar T, Khan SH. Decreased bone mineral density and associated risk factors in hospital visiting people of Islamabad. J Pak Med Assoc 2014; 64(12)(Suppl. 2): S11-4.
[105]
Barbosa CS, Montagnolli LG, Kato MT, Sampaio FC, Buzalaf MA. Calcium glycerophosphate supplemented to soft drinks reduces bovine enamel erosion. J Appl Oral Sci 2012; 20(4): 410-3.
[106]
Beiraghi S, Atkins S, Rosen S, Wilson S, Odom J, Beck M. Effect of calcium lactate in erosion and S. mutans in rats when added to coca-cola. Pediatr Dent 1989; 11(4): 312-5.
[107]
Suliga E, Koziel D, Ciesla E, Gluszek S. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in individuals with normal weight: A cross-sectional study. Nutr J 2015; 14: 55.
[108]
Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Després J-P, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened Beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2010; 33(11): 2477-83.
[109]
El-Terras A, Soliman MM, Alkhedaide A, Attia HF, Alharthy A, Banaja AE. Carbonated soft drinks induce oxidative stress and alter the expression of certain genes in the brains of Wistar rats. Mol Med Rep 2016; 13(4): 3147-54.
[110]
Bruun JM, Maersk M, Belza A, Astrup A, Richelsen B. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects: A 6-month randomised controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2015; 69(8): 949-53.
[111]
Abid A, Taha O, Nseir W, Farah R, Grosovski M, Assy N. Soft drink consumption is associated with fatty liver disease independent of metabolic syndrome. J Hepatol 2009; 51(5): 918-24.
[112]
Bulut D, Jelich U, Dacanay-Schwarz R, Mugge A. Red wine ingestion prevents microparticle formation after a single high-fat meal--a crossover study in healthy humans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2013; 61(6): 489-94.
[113]
Otero-Losada ME, Loughlin SM, Rodriguez-Granillo G, et al. Metabolic disturbances and worsening of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice after cola beverages drinking. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2013; 12: 57.
[114]
Maersk M, Belza A, Stodkilde-Jorgensen H, et al. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: A 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95(2): 283-9.
[115]
Rafraf M. Food habits related to osteoporosis in women in Iran. Health Promot Perspect 2011; 1(2): 111-7.
[116]
Fernando GR, Martha RM, Evangelina R. Consumption of soft drinks with phosphoric acid as a risk factor for the development of hypocalcemia in postmenopausal women. J Clin Epidemiol 1999; 52(10): 1007-10.
[117]
Tsimihodimos V, Kakaidi V, Elisaf M. Cola-induced hypokalaemia: Pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications. Int J Clin Pract 2009; 63(6): 900-2.
[118]
Kralovec K, Fartacek R, Ploderl M, Fartacek C, Aichhorn W. Low serum lithium associated with immoderate use of Coca-Cola Zero. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2011; 31(4): 543-4.
[119]
Ferraro PM, Taylor EN, Gambaro G, Curhan GC. Soda and other beverages and the risk of kidney stones. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2013; 8(8): 1389-95.
[120]
Prezioso D, Strazzullo P, Lotti T, et al. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group. Arch Ital Urol Androl 2015; 87(2): 105-20.
[121]
Demetriou ET, Pietras SM, Holick MF. Hypercalcemia and soft tissue calcification owing to sarcoidosis: The sunlight-cola connection. J Bone Miner Res 2010; 25(7): 1695-9.
[122]
Noori N, Sims JJ, Kopple JD, et al. Organic and inorganic dietary phosphorus and its management in chronic kidney disease. Iran J Kidney Dis 2010; 4(2): 89-100.
[123]
Kasap B, Soylu A, Cetin BS, Camlar SA, Turkmen MA, Kavukcu S. Acute kidney injury following hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis: complication of chronic heavy cola consumption in an adolescent boy. Eur J Pediatr 2010; 169(1): 107-11.
[124]
Takami M, Imuta N, Hara H, et al. Hypokalemic myopathy with long-term heavy cola consumption. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 2005; 94(1): 132-4.
[125]
Yaguchi M, Yaguchi H. Hypokalemic myopathy due to excessive consumption of cola. Intern Med 2010; 49(16): 1833.
[126]
Rice JE, Faunt JD. Excessive cola consumption as a cause of hypokalaemic myopathy. Int Med J 2001; 31(5): 317-8.
[127]
Sharma R, Guber HA. Cola-induced hypokalemia-a case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pract 2013; 19(1): e21-3.
[128]
Franceschi S, Serraino D, Carbone A, Talamini R, La Vecchia C. Dietary factors and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: A case-control study in the northeastern part of Italy. Nutr Cancer 1989; 12(4): 333-41.
[129]
Turati F, Bosetti C, Polesel J, et al. Coffee, tea, cola, and bladder cancer risk: Dose and time relationships. Urology 2015; 86(6): 1179-84.
[130]
Uccella S, Mariani A, Wang AH, et al. Intake of coffee, caffeine and other methylxanthines and risk of Type I vs. Type II endometrial cancer. Br J Cancer 2013; 109(7): 1908-13.
[131]
Song YJ, Kristal AR, Wicklund KG, Cushing-Haugen KL, Rossing MA. Coffee, tea, colas, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: A publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2008; 17(3): 712-6.
[132]
Ellison LF. Tea and other beverage consumption and prostate cancer risk: A Canadian retrospective cohort study. Eur J Cancer Prev 2000; 9(2): 125-30.
[133]
Lubin F, Ron E, Wax Y, Modan B. Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: A case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985; 74(3): 569-73.
[134]
Grossarth-Maticek R, Eysenck HJ. Coca-Cola, cancers, and coronaries: Personality and stress as mediating factors. Psychol Rep 1991; 68(3 Pt 2): 1083-7.
[135]
Slattery ML, Caan BJ, Anderson KE, Potter JD. Intake of fluids and methylxanthine-containing beverages: Association with colon cancer. Int J Cancer 1999; 81(2): 199-204.
[136]
Song F, Qureshi AA, Han J. Increased caffeine intake is associated with reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer Res 2012; 72(13): 3282-9.
[137]
Thomopoulos TP, Ntouvelis E, Diamantaras AA, et al. Maternal and childhood consumption of coffee, tea and cola beverages in association with childhood leukemia: A meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol 2015; 39(6): 1047-59.
[138]
Sipetic S, Vlajinac H, Kocev N, Radmanovic S. Characteristics and habits of parents of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Srp Arh Celok Lek 2003; 131(5-6): 238-43.
[139]
Chen L, Hu FB, Yeung E, Willett W, Zhang C. Prospective study of pre-gravid sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2009; 32(12): 2236-41.
[140]
Giannelli M, Doyle P, Roman E, Pelerin M, Hermon C. The effect of caffeine consumption and nausea on the risk of miscarriage. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2003; 17(4): 316-23.
[141]
Caan BJ, Goldhaber MK. Caffeinated beverages and low birthweight: A case-control study. Am J Public Health 1989; 79(9): 1299-300.
[142]
Bille C, Olsen J, Vach W, et al. Oral clefts and life style factors--a case-cohort study based on prospective Danish data. Eur J Epidemiol 2007; 22(3): 173-81.
[143]
Petherick ES, Goran MI, Wright J. Relationship between artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened cola beverage consumption during pregnancy and preterm delivery in a multi-ethnic cohort: Analysis of the born in bradford cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2014; 68(3): 404-7.
[144]
Leira R, Rodriguez R. Diet and migraine. Rev Neurol 1996; 24(129): 534-8.
[145]
Hering-Hanit R, Gadoth N. Caffeine-induced headache in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia 2003; 23(5): 332-5.
[146]
Maas AG, Hogenhuis LA. Multiple sclerosis and possible relationship to cocoa: A hypothesis. Ann Allergy 1987; 59(1): 76-9.
[147]
Spinella M. Herbal medicines and epilepsy: The potential for benefit and adverse effects. Epilepsy Behav 2001; 2(6): 524-32.
[148]
Lien L, Lien N, Heyerdahl S, Thoresen M, Bjertness E. Consumption of soft drinks and hyperactivity, mental distress, and conduct problems among adolescents in Oslo, Norway. Am J Public Health 2006; 96(10): 1815-20.
[149]
Zou LP, Wang Y, Zhang LP, et al. Tourette syndrome and excitatory substances: Is there a connection? Childs Nerv Syst 2011; 27(5): 793-802.
[150]
Henriksen RE, Torsheim T, Thuen F. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: Testing the social baseline theory. PLoS One 2014; 9(8): e104421.
[151]
Al Agili DE, Park HK. The prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. J Sch Health 2012; 82(3): 131-8.
[152]
Thombs D, Rossheim M, Barnett TE, Weiler RM, Moorhouse MD, Coleman BN. Is there a misplaced focus on AmED? Associations between caffeine mixers and bar patron intoxication. Drug Alcohol Depend 2011; 116(1-3): 31-6.
[153]
Taavoni S, Ekbatani NN, Haghani H. Postmenopausal women’s quality of sleep and its related factors. J Midlife Health 2015; 6(1): 21-5.
[154]
Feikema WJ. Headache and chronic sleep deprivation: An often missed relationship in children and also in adults. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1999; 143(38): 1897-900.
[155]
Nagata C, Kabuto M, Shimizu H. Association of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intakes with serum concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutr Cancer 1998; 30(1): 21-4.
[156]
Celec P, Behuliak M. Behavioural and endocrine effects of chronic cola intake. J Psychopharmacol 2010; 24(10): 1569-72.
[157]
Yang H, Chen Q, Zhou N, et al. Lifestyles associated with human semen quality: Results from MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China. Medicine 2015; 94(28): e1166.
[158]
Jensen TK, Swan SH, Skakkebaek NE, Rasmussen S, Jorgensen N. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 171(8): 883-91.
[159]
Hatch EE, Wise LA, Mikkelsen EM, et al. Caffeinated beverage and soda consumption and time to pregnancy. Epidemiology 2012; 23(3): 393-401.
[160]
Maersk M, Belza A, Holst JJ, et al. Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink: A controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012; 66(4): 523-9.
[161]
Hadas-Halpren I, Hiller N, Guberman D. Emphysematous gastritis secondary to ingestion of large amounts of Coca Cola. Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88(1): 127-9.
[162]
Speer F. Food allergy: The 10 common offenders. Am Fam Physician 1976; 13(2): 106-12.
[163]
Caballero T, Garcia-Ara C, Pascual C, Diaz-Pena JM, Ojeda A. Urticaria induced by caffeine. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1993; 3(3): 160-2.
[164]
Weinmann S, Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, et al. Caffeine intake in relation to the risk of primary cardiac arrest. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5): 505-8.
[165]
Kinugawa T, Kurita T, Nohara R, Smith ML. A case of atrial tachycardia sensitive to increased caffeine intake. Int Heart J 2011; 52(6): 398-400.
[166]
Shen WW, D’Souza TC. Cola-induced psychotic organic brain syndrome. A case report. Rocky Mt Med J 1979; 76(6): 312-3.
[167]
Hu Y, Costenbader KH, Gao X, et al. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100(3): 959-67.
[168]
Russel MG, Engels LG, Muris JW, et al. Modern life’ in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: A case-control study with special emphasis on nutritional factors. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 10(3): 243-9.
[169]
Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Non-alcoholic beverage and caffeine consumption and mortality: The leisure world cohort study. Prev Med 2007; 44(4): 305-10.
[170]
Gallay A, Van Loock F, Demarest S, Van der Heyden J, Jans B, Van Oyen H. Belgian coca-cola-related outbreak: Intoxication, mass sociogenic illness, or both? Am J Epidemiol 2002; 155(2): 140-7.
[171]
Eschauzier C, Hoppe M, Schlummer M, de Voogt P. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluoroalkyl acids in high-consumption tap-water based beverages. Chemosphere 2013; 90(1): 36-41.
[172]
Smith TJ, Wolfson JA, Jiao D, et al. Caramel color in soft drinks and exposure to 4-methylimidazole: a quantitative risk assessment. PLoS One 2015; 10(2): e0118138.
[173]
Wojcicki JM, Heyman MB. Malnutrition and the role of the soft drink industry in improving child health in sub-Saharan Africa. Pediatrics 2010; 126(6): e1617-21.
[174]
Popkin BM, Adair LS, Ng SW. Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev 2012; 70(1): 3-21.
[175]
Fairchild AL. Half empty or half full? New York’s soda rule in historical perspective. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(19): 1765-7.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Published on: 21 March, 2019
Page: [130 - 139]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1573401313666170821130225
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 25
HTML: 2