Biomedical research, known as medical research, is conducive to support and
promote the development of knowledge in the field of medicine. Hydrogels have been extensively
used in many biomedical fields due to their highly absorbent and flexible properties.
The smart hydrogels, especially, can respond to a broad range of external stimuli
such as temperature, pH value, light, electric and magnetic fields. With excellent biocompatibility,
tunable rheology, mechanical properties, porosity, and hydrated molecular
structure, hydrogels are considered as promising candidate for simulating local tissue microenvironment.
In this review article, we mainly focused on the most recent development
of engineering synthetic hydrogels; moreover, the classification, properties, especially the
biomedical applications including tissue engineering and cell scaffolding, drug and gene
delivery, immunotherapies and vaccines, are summarized and discussed.