Understanding the Pathogenesis of Neurodegeneration in Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)
Pp. 54-73 (20)
Shahna Shahulhameed, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Jay K. Chhablani and Inderjeet Kaur
Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of irreversible global vision
loss. It affects the entire neurovascular unit of the retina, along with gradual neurodegeneration
and neuroinflammation. DR has primarily been considered a
microvasculature complication of diabetes, a well-known metabolic disorder. However,
recent studies have reported the presence of neurodegenerative changes in the retina of
DR patients prior to clinical manifestations. In this review, we have compiled clinical,
histopathological, biochemical and genetic evidences that suggest a role of
neurodegeneration in DR progression and pathogenesis. These studies indicated neural
changes in the retina that have lead to microvascular alterations. Furthermore, the
mechanisms underlying the neural changes can help identify drug targets for effective
management of the disease, which in turn will help reduce the burden of visual
impairments caused by DR.
Degenerative disease, Diabetes, Inflammation, Neurons, Retina.
Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, LV Prasad Eye Institute Hyderabad, India.