Background and Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is arguably the largest healthcare issue
of our time. AD is thought to be principally the result of an inter-play between the β-amyloid peptide
and Tau, and it is driven by several genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies have
shown that small non-protein-coding microRNA (miRNA) and the associated post-transcriptional gene
regulation are important regulators of many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. We reviewed
recent studies identifying various miRNA dysregulated in AD. These miRNAs could play a significant
role in the pathophysiology of AD, in both β-amyloid peptide and Tau toxicity.
Conclusion: The identification of dysregulated miRNAs pattern can serve as specific AD biomarkers
which may provide the basis for new and effective diagnostic approach. In addition, these miRNAs
may represent new targets for pharmaceutical development.