Background and Objective: Psoriasis is a chronic and complex autoimmune inflammatory
skin disease that affects over 125 million people worldwide. It can exhibit at any age, in spite
of the fact that children are less normally influenced than adults. It is characterized by distinct
erythematous plaques shielded with conspicuous silvery scales that shows up in different areas of
the skin. Knowledge of pathophysiology, especially the pathogenesis of psoriasis, has significantly
progressed in the recent decade. Advancement in molecular knowledge leads to better understanding
of the disease, thus influencing the development of efficient treatment modalities. However, even
with the availability of various options of treatment most of the efficient treatment modalities are
costly. Expenses of health care bring about major financial weight to the patients as well as to health
care systems. Thus, it was important to review the available current treatment options and those
which are under development, in terms of efficacy, safety and cost to assist in selecting the most
appropriate treatment for psoriasis patients.
Methods: Literatures were searched by using key words psoriasis, topical treatment, systemic treatment,
biologics and phototherapies, on Embase, Medline, Jstor, Cochrane and Merck Index databases.
Results: Life-style choices such as smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and stress are recognised
as risk factors and triggers associated with psoriasis. Psoriasis poses psycho-social and economic
burden on affected patients that sometimes leads to depression, reduced social interaction and suicidal
tendencies in patients. Depending on the type, severity and extent of the disease, comorbidities,
patient preference, efficacy and safety profile, numerous treatment modalities and therapeutic agents
are available such as topical, systemic, biologic and phototherapeutic treatments. However, it was
found that among all the current available treatments for psoriasis, biologic agents and phototherapeutic
modalities are the most commonly employed treatment modalities for moderate to severe
Conclusion: Evaluation of present-day available treatment alternatives will surely help physician to
select a suitable module for each patient while keeping in mind the financial status of the patient.
Future research should aim to develop therapies which are efficient, safe and cost-effective.