Background: The detection of biological molecules referred as biomarkers in biological fluids
is fundamental in clinical analysis because it permits to discriminate between healthy and ill individuals
and to evaluate the progress of a disease. The development of immunosensors for the detection and monitoring
of biomarkers is currently a major area of research and, as more markers are discovered and their
role in disease becomes better understood, this will continue to grow.
Methods: We report the research progresses of electrochemical immunosensor applied in clinical analysis
that have been published in the last three years.
Results: The emphasis of this review is on the advances of the electrochemical immunosensors for detection
and monitoring of cancerous, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. An immunosensor overview
was presented as well as the biomarkers and biosensing systems currently used to detect the onset and
monitor the progression of the mentioned diseases.
Conclusions: Electrochemical biosensors focusing on a vast repertoire of analytes are now becoming one
of the most widely explored scientific fields. This is due to their enormous potential in clinical diagnosis
and biological process monitoring.
In the near future, with the development of transducer technology, nano-sized material technology, and
biomolecules engineering technology, biosensors should be powerful tools in several analytical areas.