MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which downregulate gene expression by repressing
or degrading mRNA targets. Lung cancer (LC), together with liver and colorectal cancers are the three leading
causes of cancer death worldwide, and 80% of LCs belong to non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite
a great advancement in developing distinct and delicate tools for early diagnosis and targeted therapies over the
last decade, only about 15% of the NSCLC patients eventually survived. MiRNAs are frequently dysregulated in
carcinoma, including LC. Numerous lines of evidence have demonstrated various roles played by miRNAs in the
development and progression of LC. In this review, we propose to summarize the current understanding of miRNAs
in LC, with a particular focus on translational application of miRNAs as novel diagnostic and prognostic
biomarkers and tools for treatment.
Keywords: miRNA, lung cancer, biomarker, non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, exosome.
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