Background: Leaves of Ginkgo biloba, a “living fossil,” have been used as traditional herbal
medicine for hundreds of years in China. Currently, its application in vascular protection is garnering
Methods: In this manuscript, preclinical studies were reviewed to discuss various mechanisms underlying
the vascular protection by Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). Additionally, we reviewed clinical studies
to present the application of GBE in the ischaemic disease.
Results: GBE, a commonly used dietary supplement, has been shown to act as an antioxidant and freeradical
scavenger, a membrane stabilizer, an inhibitor of the platelet-activating factor, a vasodilator, and
a regulator of metabolism. Currently, there exist a growing number of clinical studies about GBE in the
application of cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and diabetic vascular complications.
Conclusion: GBE, a promising therapeutic agent for cardiovascular and ischaemic diseases, exerts vascular-
protection function by a comprehensive mechanisms.