Background: Growing world population and continuous disease emergence have invited the development
of more efficient new vaccines against a range of diseases. Conventional vaccines are being wildly used in the world
but their production requires higher cost, more time and better infrastructure. Thus, the idea of plant-based edible
vaccine technology has emerged and showed promising results with strong and effective protection against many
diseases. Plants have been utilized since more than two decades as pharmaceuticals against many diseases.
Methods: Plant-based technology has great potential to express genes and produce clinically important compounds
in the desired tissue. Plant biotechnology has played important role in the production of pharmaceutical compounds
like vaccines, antibodies, antigens, sub-units, growth hormones and enzymes by utilizing genetic modification. It has
also been opened a new approach for developing an edible vaccine as an oral delivery.
Results: Edible vaccines have been shown to induce both mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Currently, many
pharmaceuticals proteins as an edible vaccine have been developed in different plant expression systems and evaluated
against various life-threatening diseases and some of them have reached advanced phase of the clinical trial and
exhibited promising results.
Conclusion: In this review, we have discussed about the molecular pharming, edible vaccines, plant base technology
and current status of developed edible vaccines in the different plant tissue expression system, mechanism of action
and clinical applications with clinical trials stage, significance, requirements, advantage and disadvantage of edible