Melanoma shows a high possibility of mortality after it metastasizes because of its aggressive nature.
Although there are several options for anti-melanoma therapy, this skin malignancy is resistant to some therapies.
Chemotherapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, and adoptive cell therapy have failed to exhibit a significant
amelioration in overall survival. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the efficiency of the antimelanoma
regimen. Nanoparticles for treating melanoma provide the advantages over conventional therapies
such as drug solubility increment, drug stability enhancement, epithelium permeability and bioavailability amelioration,
half-life prolonging, tumor targeting, and side effect minimization. Polymeric nanocarriers are the most
extensively studied platforms for the treatment of a variety of cancers. The polymers' sophisticated material engineering
tailors the controllable physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles for melanoma penetration via
passive and active delivery. The present study highlights the recent progress on the development of polymeric
nanoparticles for melanoma treatment. We describe the concepts and improvement mechanisms of the nanomedical
techniques for melanoma treatment. Passive targeting by modifying the structure and physicochemical characters
of polymeric nanocarriers is a strategy for efficient drug delivery to the melanoma and its metastasis. On the
other hand, active targeting such as peptide or antibody conjugation is another approach delivering the drugs or
genes to the nidus site by the nanocarriers. This review offers an overview of the benefits of polymeric nanosystems
for treating melanoma.