Chronic liver diseases are one of the major causess of mortality worldwide. It can manifest
through many different forms including chronic virus infection, alcohol abuse, metabolic syndromes
such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. At early stages,
the liver can repair the damage produced by the insult. However, upon continuous damage, the accumulation
of molecules triggers fibrosis, which subsequently progresses towards cirrhosis and, ultimately,
hepatocarcinoma. Early diagnosis of liver disease and a proper staging of fibrosis are crucial
in therapy since drugs are only effective at incipient and intermediate stages of the disease. In
this context, liver biopsy is the gold standard, but it is invasive and can produce complications. Metabolomics
has emerged as a potent discipline to identify new biomarkers in a non-invasive way.
Here, we compile and critically review the existing NMR-based metabolomics studies on chronic
liver diseases, specifically covering non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,
alcoholic liver disease and those produced by virus infection.
Keywords: Liver, Fibrosis progression, Cirrhosis, NAFLD, NASH, ALD, HBV, HCV, NMR, Metabolomics, Biomarkers.
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