Background: Aspergillus spp. is ubiquitous, opportunistic fungi that invade and
cause serious complication in man. Different species of Aspergillus causes various types of
aspergillosis in man. Many predisposing factors have been attributed to the cause of the disease.
Due to the nature of the disease, diagnosis is also difficult. Since this disease generally
occurs in people who are immunocompromised, there is no effective immune response
against this disease; therefore drugs are the only way to treat it. Depending on the state of
the immune system, clinical symptoms can range from an excessive immune response to the
formation of an aspergilloma in the immune-competent patients. Recognition and removal
of the fungus by phagocytosis, production of antimicrobial peptides and recognition by pattern
recognition receptors are the major components of the innate immune system involved
in fighting the disease. Various classes of antifungal drugs are used to treat the disease but
the fungus has its own machinery to overcome the effect and become resistant to the drugs.
Conclusion: This review mainly focuses on the types of invasive aspergillosis and the immune
response against the fungus by the host when it invades the host and the various
classes of drugs that are employed to evade the infection.