Textbook of Iatrogenic Pathology

Textbook of Iatrogenic Pathology

This book is a concise textbook of iatrogenic pathology. Chapters cover iatrogenesis relevant to a broad range of medical subspecialties (cardiology, gastroenterology, gynecology, neurology, ...
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Iatrogenic Lesions in Neurology

Pp. 210-230 (21)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681085142117010018

Author(s): Rodica Balasa

Abstract

Iatrogenic neurological disorders can be induced by several factors, such as pharmacological agents prescribed for treatment or prevention (drug-induced neurological disorders [DIND]), complications of diagnostic and treatment procedures, like cerebral angiography or lumbar puncture, organ transplantation (related to the surgical procedure of transplantation, post-transplant immunosuppression, opportunistic infection or the inherent disorders that lead to transplantation), radiation therapy, etc. Iatrogenic neurological effects may be devastating due to the higher potential irreversibility of central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and/or muscular system involvement. DIND represent the majority of iatrogenic neurological disorders. Drugs may directly induce neurological damage (through primary neurotoxicity, such as damage to the bloodbrain barrier [BBB], disturbances of brain energy metabolism, ion channels/neurotransmitters disturbances, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolitemediated toxins, drug-induced selective cell death) or do so indirectly (cardiovascular, hematological or renal effects). Identification of DIND is important because early recognition and drug withdrawal can prevent irreversible damage. The numerous intrinsic risk factors for DIND should be well known by medical practitioners.

Keywords:

Anticholinergic syndrome, Choreoathetosis, Dyskinesia, Dystonia, Encephalopathies, Intracranial hypertension, Meningitis, Myoclonus, Myopathies, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neuromuscular junction, Neurotoxicity, Organ transplantation, Parkinsonism, Polyneuropathy, Radiation therapy, Serotonin syndrome, Sympathomimetic syndrome, Tremor.